En: Freemasonry in the German Empire

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Freemasonry in the German Empire

Source: Phoenixmasonry http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/goulds_history_volume_3.htm

Note: This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference. Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.






The whole organization of German Freemasonry was demolished by the Great War of 1914-18. Until that event the Craft was divided in its allegiance amongst eight Grand Lodges. There were also five perfectly regular and recognized Lodges which were "a law unto themselves." Besides these, many Grand Bodies of the Craft lived their span and died and, without some allusion to their former existence, a history of German Freemasonry would be incomplete and incomprehensible. An endeavour will, therefore, be made to describe all these communities and this branch of the inquiry will conclude by a reference to various combinations of German Masons, which do not come under the heading of Grand Lodges. The Chart given with this Chapter will serve to present the various governing bodies in their contemporaneous aspect.

Grand Lodges

I. The Grand Lodge of Hamburg

Of all the German Grand Lodges this deserves the first mention, for two reasons, its earliest beginnings can be carried farthest back along the stream of time and, in the purity and legitimacy of its English origin, it is only equalled by the Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union, at Frankfort, which, however, falls slightly behind it in point of antiquity.

The earliest date connecting the Craft with Hamburg, is contained in a speech delivered January 30, 1765, by Dr. Jaenisch, then Provincial Grand Master, who, according to Nettlebladt, Gesech. Freim. Systeme, p. 555, declared that his appoint ment as such dated from the time of his departure from London between 1717-20. This assertion can only be explained by supposing that at this very early period Jaenisch had received some verbal permission to make Freemasons on the Continent; anything more definite or formal is inconceivable.

The next reference to Hamburg occurs under the administration of the Duke of Norfolk (see Constitutions, 1756, p. 333), when a Monsieur Thuanus, sometimes called Du Thom, was appointed in 1729 Provincial Grand Master for the circle of Lower Saxony. This person, however, is no more heard of, therefore his influence, if ever exercised, must have been of a very fugitive character.

In 1733 the Earl of Strathmore is stated by Preston (1821, p. 213) to have granted to eleven German Masons a Deputation to open a Lodge at Hamburg, concerning which there is no further information.

The Minutes (in French) of an anonymous Hamburg Lodge have been preserved, dated December 6, 1737. According to these, the meeting was held under the presidency of Karl Sarry, English Provincial Grand Master for Prussia and Branden burg. This gentleman's name is not mentioned in the English records, but he may have had some reason for assuming the above title nevertheless. The Lodge in question is usually considered to have developed into the Absalom. If so, it performed the unnecessary act of obtaining a fresh Charter, because it was almost certainly already warranted in 1733, for in the Engraved List for 1734 we find No. 124 at Hamburg without a date and, in the later List for 1740, as No. io8, constituted in 1733. Findel says the reason for the previous non‑adoption of the name was because Luttmann did not receive his patent as Provincial Grand Master until 1740. It is possible, however, that it was the Lodge of the eleven German Masons, as above. On October 23, 1740, Lodge Absalom at Hamburg was warranted as No. 119 (see Engraved List, 1756), the dates and numbers both showing that the Lodges were considered distinct in England. If one Lodge was a continuation of the other, it is somewhat difficult to account for these two Warrants and the consequent loss of seniority. In all probability when, in 1740, Luttmann was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Hamburg and Lower Saxony, he applied for a Warrant for a new Lodge Absalom‑and that the old Lodge gradually died out. The latter had been ruled in turn by Brothers Carpser, Von Oberg and Luttmann himself. The most remarkable incidents of the existence of this old Lodge are, that on March 7, 1738, according to Nettlebladt, it drew upon itself the very short‑lived prohibition of the magistrates and, in the same year, sent a Deputation to initiate the future Frederick the Great.

Lodge Absalom was warranted October 23, 1740 and, on the 30th, Luttmann received his patent as Provincial Grand Master. He was also the Master of Absalom, but having perfected and opened the Provincial Grand Lodge in 1741 ‑ the highest Masonic authority in Germany ‑ he resigned the chair of the Lodge in 174z and, says Keller in Gesch. der Freim. in Deutschland, 1859, p. 82, accepted the position of Treasurer. Even Marschall, the Provincial Grand Master for Upper Saxony, did not disdain to occupy a Warden's chair in this Lodge whilst residing at Hamburg.

The first act of the Provincial Grand Master, was to legitimate an existing unchartered Lodge in Hamburg, under the name of St. George, September 24, 1743. This Lodge first appears in the English List of 1744 as No. 196. The constitution of a Lodge in Brunswick followed in 1744; at Copenhagen, 1745; Hanover, 1746; Celle, 1748; Oldenberg, 1752; Schwerin, 1754; and at Hildesheim, 1762. The last two received English numbers, but the subsequent history of all was very soon divorced from that of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Scarcely was the Provincial Grand Lodge established before Scots Masonry made itself felt. In 1744 Count Schmettau, who had carried the Scots Degrees to Berlin, introduced them to Hamburg and erected the Scots Lodges Schmettau and Judica, of which von Oberg and von Ronigk, the Masters of St. George and Absalom, became respectively the Scots Masters (Handbuch, s.v. Hamburg). At the same time many surreptitious Lodges sprang up and, in 1749, there even existed a clandestine Tylers' or Serving Brothers' Lodge, in which other Serving Brethren were initiated (see op. cit.). In 1747 there was at Hamburg an African Lodge, which, although it passed away and left no trace, has been viewed as a forerunner of von Koppen's Rite of African Architects, '1768‑97.

Lüttmann (a dyer), who resigned in 1759 and had ceased to exist in 1764, was followed ‑ November 20, 1759 ‑ by Gottfried J. Jaenisch, M.D. ‑ born 1707; initiated in Lodge Absalom, December 18, 1743 ; and died May 28, 1781. The latter's patent as Provincial Grand Master was signed by Lord Aberdour (Constitutions, 1767) ; but he was scarcely installed before, in 1762, he associated himself with the Degrees of the Clermont Chapter introduced by Rosa from Berlin. The way was thus prepared for the Strict Observance.

In the first month of 1765, Schubart arrived in Hamburg, where he consorted with Bode, who had been present at Johnstone's Altenberg Convent. The rule of the Strict Observance, which required noble birth of its candidates, proved no bar to Schubart's success in this notably plebeian city, for Hund was induced to sanction Schubart's proposition whereby enhanced fees not only ensured knighthood, but also ennoblement. A prominent Hamburg Mason at this time was Joh. Gottfr. von Exter, M.D. ‑ born in Bremen 1734 ‑ who was made a knight (together with Jaenisch) by Schubart, January 11, 1765. The Templar missionary promised to raise Hamburg to the position of an independent Prefectory. Accordingly, on January 30, Jaenisch appeared in the Provincial Grand Lodge, dissolved all Lodges formerly warranted by its authority, closed the Provincial Grand Lodge, declared the Strict Observance Rite the only true one, reconstituted the Lodges Absalom and St. George and proclaimed Hamburg as the Prefectory Ivenach. (Nettlebladt, Geschichte Freimaurerei Systeme, p. 558). Bode, who had been made in the Absalom Lodge ‑ February 11, 1761 ‑ became for a time a leading light in the Strict Observance. The Chapter, which had been formed of i z members, grew in the space of a few weeks to 29. The generality of the Fraternity proved, however, by no means enthusiastically disposed towards the new Rite; for, in 1768, the two Hamburg Lodges were practically dormant and the Grand Lodge closed (Handhuch, s.v. Hamburg), a state of things which permitted other systems to force an entrance.


In 1768 Rosenberg ‑ who is mentioned in connexion with Russia ‑ erected in Hamburg the Lodge of the Three Roses, Sudthausen that of Olympia, both according to the Swedish Rite. But Zinnendorff, who had cast off the Strict Observance in 1767 and founded his own rival Swedish Rite in 1768, came to Hamburg in 1770, and reconstituted these two Lodges under his own system; and, in 1771, founded two others, the Pelican and Red Eagle, in Altona, a suburb of Hamburg. At the head of Olympia, afterwards the Golden Sphere, was J. Leonhardi - not to be confounded with Leonhardi of Frankfort - who was for many years Zinnendorff's representative in the Grand Lodge at London. (For Leonhardi's actions in London, see History of Loge der Pilger, Masonic News, London, October 26, 1929.) The first two Lodges took part in the formation - June 24, 1770 - Of Zinnendorff's Grand National Lodge. Meanwhile, in spite of the efforts of the Provincial Grand Master for Foreign Lodges, De Vignolles, who seems to have been the only English Mason who thoroughly understood the character of Zinnendorff's usurpation, the Grand Lodge of England had recognized the sole authority in Germany of the Grand National Lodge at Berlin - November 30, 1773 - so that when Jaenisch at length attempted to resume his duties as English Provincial Grand Master, he found that his patent had been annulled by Lord Petre, May 31, 1773. In the letter of Heseltine, the Grand Secretary, demanding the immediate return of his patent, jaenisch is deservedly reproached, not only with regard to former acts of negligence, but for having made an illegal use of the document for the furtherance of the Sect of the Strict Observance (Nettlebladt, p. 778). The proceedings of Zinnendorff, however, in whose favour the letter was issued, were no less illegal and far more reprehensible. In 1774 fourteen Brethren deserted Zinnendorff's Lodges and were constituted by Jaenisch as a Strict Observance Lodge under the name Emanuel, thus forming the third Lodge of the system which had once been the Provincial Grand Lodge and was destined to become so again. This Lodge was, of course, not immediately registered in England and first appears in the list for 1792, as No. 508, with the note "have met since 1774." In the same list (1792), Lodges Absalom and St. George, which were dropped out at the closing up of numbers in 1770, reappear. The year 1774 - September 8 - witnessed the initiation in this Lodge Emanuel, of Fried. Ludwig Schroeder, one of the most prominent reformers of German Freemasonry, who was born at Schwerin, March 3, 1744. Schroeder's public career as an actor and dramatic poet is well known and, in his later function of impresario, he was, at least, equally successful. At a comparatively early age he was enabled to devote his well-earned leisure to the reform of the Craft; here also success attended him. He was Master of the Emanuel Lodge, 1787-99; Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Lower Saxony, 1799-184; and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg from 1814 until his death, September 3, 1816. His first acts as a Freemason showed no promise of his future career, for in 1774, being then only an Apprentice, he opened a clandestine Lodge in Hamburg, Eliza of the Warm Heart, which lasted until 1777.

In 1776 the Princes Karl of Hesse and Ferdinand of Brunswick founded the Lodge Ferdinand Caroline in Hamburg, the fourth Lodge of the Hamburg system. In 1792 this Lodge received the English No. 509, with the date of 1776.

In 1778 Bode was Master of Absalom; Dresser of St. George. This latter not being acceptable to the Brethren, who under the Strict Observance rules, were powerless to remove him, the Hamburg Fraternity seized the occasion of Karl's presence in Altona - then a town of Denmark, although apparently a suburb of Hamburgto offer him the presidency of all four Lodges. This he accepted - March 28, 1778 - but disappointed the Brethren in his choice of a Deputy; so the ruse having failed, the Chapter was induced to influence him to resign the office in 1780, accepting the title of Protector, allowing the Lodges, pro hac vice, to choose their own Masters. Dresser, as will be easily understood, was not re-elected.

Meanwhile, the Hamburg Fraternity had grown tired of the Strict Observance, which was itself moribund. On May 28, 1781, Jaenisch died and was succeeded by Dr. von Exter, under whom - by amalgamation - the four Lodges became two and renounced the Templar Rite. Exter, however, was won over by the New or Gold Rosicrucians and announced himself as a Grand Master under this system, with Dresser as Deputy. Through the latter, Hamburg was nearly induced by the Wetzlar Brotherhood to join the newly-formed Eclectic Union as a third Directoral Lodge; but the negotiations were interrupted by his death. At this period Aug. Graefe, a former Provincial Grand Master for Canada, arrived in Hamburg as the representative in Germany of the Grand Lodge of England. He was a strong opponent of Zinnendorff, although accredited to his Grand Lodge by a patent dated March 24, 1785 and strongly encouraged a return to first principles, holding out hopes of the Provincial Grand Lodge being revived (Keller, pp. 199, 200).

In 1783 Hamburg was invaded by Eckhoffen with a Lodge of Asiatic Brothers and, in 1785, Schroeder returned from Vienna (Findel, P. 497), his influence soon making itself felt throughout the Hamburg Craft.

In 1786, the negotiations with England being now complete and Zinnendorff disowned, the two Hamburg Lodges redivided into the original four and, on August 24, Graefe installed von Exter as Provincial Grand Master for Hamburg and Lower Saxony (Keller, pp. 200, 201). Exter's patent was dated July 5, 1786. In 1787 Schroeder was elected Master of Lodge Emanuel and soon after was intrusted with the revision of the Statutes. He completed his work in 1788 and laid the first stone of his reform by establishing the Old Charges of 1723 as the foundation of all Masonry. But, whilst bent on cutting down extravagance on the one hand, he was equally energetic in preventing extreme measures on the other; and it must be ascribed to his influence that a proposal made in 1789 to forego rites and ceremonies of all kinds was rejected (Findel, pp. 497, 498).

This return to English Freemasonry was naturally distasteful to Karl of Hesse, Ferdinand's coadjutor, in the direction of the Rectified Strict Observance. He, therefore, in 1787, erected a Lodge, Ferdinand of the Rock, at Hamburg, which was, of course, looked upon as clandestine, as were also at this time the Zinnendorff Lodges. In September 179o Bode, who had migrated to Gotha, issued a circular proposing a General Union of German Lodges. The circular failed to shake the allegiance of a single Hamburg Lodge, but possibly it had the effect of stimulating Schroeder to further measures, for we next find that - at his instigation - the Scots Lodges and Degrees were abolished in 1790-1, thus leaving nothing but pure English Freemasonry. This step was followed in 1795 by the adhesion of Lodge Ferdinand of the Rock, which, in the Freemasons' Calendar for 1798, appears as No. 562, with the words "have met since 1788" in a parenthesis.

At Exter's death - April 12, 1799 - Beckmann became Provincial Grand Master and Schroeder Deputy (Nettlebladt, p. 598). The latter, who had previously revised the Constitutions, now turned his attention to the Ceremonial and, having discovered what he imagined to be the earliest diction, recast it in a form more applicable to the times. The result was a simple yet impressive Ritual, differing little from the English, which was approved and accepted by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, April 29, 18o1. Its daughter Lodges had meanwhile increased from 5 to 9 (Nettlebladt, pp. 6oo, 601).

In 1802 Schroeder procured the acceptance of what, until quite lately, was the distinguishing feature of the Hamburg system, viz. the Engbund - i.e. Select Bond. It was intended to forestall any hankering after High Degrees by rendering it possible for Master Masons to become historically acquainted with all the High Degrees of the various Rites. At the same time, to raise its value as a distinction, it was not open to all Master Masons, while it possessed its own means of recognition, etc. Certain Grand Officers and all Masters of Lodgeswere ex officio members and, in each Lodge, a certain number of the Master Masons were admitted. The Hamburg Engbund was a sort of Grand Engbund for all the private ones; a further selection from each Engbund conducted the correspondence with the others. This second division was called the Correspondence Circle. The members, as such, exercised no influence over their Lodges and their intention was, by research into all the usages and fallacies of the High Degrees, to demonstrate their uselessness and absence of historical basis.

Under its new guise the Provincial Grand Lodge of Hamburg prospered for some years, until, in 1811, the success of the French arms and Napoleon's Interdict rendered it impossible to continue the connexion with England. On February 11, 1811, therefore, the Provincial Grand Lodge declared itself independent, under the name of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg (Nettlebladt, p. 613). At that time its sway was exerted over 12 Lodges (Findel, p. 499). The remainder of its history is uneventful enough.

Beckmann died - June 28, 1814 - and was succeeded as Grand Master by Schroeder; at whose death - September 3, 1816 - Beseler was elected and, at his resignation, Schleiden, July 28, 1825. In 1828 W. H. Goschen (a member of Loge der Pilger, No. 238, London) was appointed the first representative at the Grand Lodge of England. In 1834 Schleiden resigned and was succeeded by Moraht. On December 6, 1837, Lodge Absalom held its centenary festival and, in 1838, the Grand Lodge of England appointed H. J. Wenck as its first representative at Hamburg. Hamburg was from that time closely allied with England and its representative often enjoyed the special honour of being appointed Grand Secretary for German Correspondence. Moraht died February 13, 1838 and was succeeded by Dav. Andr. Cords, under whom the Constitutions were revised in 1845. The latter was followed by his former Deputy, Dr. H. W. Buek, in 1847 and, under this Grand Master, the Constitutions were again revised in 1862. The 150 years' jubilee of Freemasonry was held in 1867.

In 1869 it was considered expedient that the historical acquirements of the Engbund should no longer be reserved as the special privilege of a select few. The Grand Engbund was therefore dissolved and reconstituted as a private Engbund, open to all Master Masons; the daughter associations followed suit. They then existed as purely literary Masonic societies; but the want of the previous cohesion and superior direction had so seriously hampered their efforts, that in 1878 the Lodge at Rostock made proposals for re-establishing the former organization (Findel p. 501). The completion of Dr. Buek's twenty-fifth year as Grand Master was celebrated by the Grand Lodge, June 24, 1872. He then resigned and was followed by Glitza. In 1874 and 1875 the Grand Lodge of Hamburg recognized the coloured Lodges of Prince Hall in Boston and of Ohio and, in 1877-8, the Constitutions underwent a last revision.

In 1878 the Grand Lodge of Hamburg ruled over 32 Lodges, of which 5 were in that city and 19 in other parts of Germany, 8 being abroad. In Hamburg itself there existed 9 other Lodges owing allegiance to other German Grand Lodges. The total number of Masons under the Grand Lodge was 3,726, an average of 116 per Lodge. Two foreign Lodges were then added, one at Bucharest, another at Vera Cruz (Cosmopolitan Calendar, 1885). With a solitary exception, Hamburg was the only German Grand Lodge which warranted Lodges outside the Empire; it ignored the American theory of Grand Lodge sovereignty, possessing no fewer than three Lodges in New York itself. The Pilgrim Lodge (Loge der Pilger) in London, works in German according to the Hamburg or Schroeder Ritual, but under the rule of the Grand Lodge of England.

The history of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg may thus briefly be summarized -173o, Du Thom, Provincial Grand Master; 1733-40, anonymous Lodge; 1740-65, Provincial Grand Lodge for Hamburg and Lower Saxony under Luttmann and Jaenisch ; 1765-82, a part of the Strict Observance system ; 1782-8, under Exter, indoctrinated with the fancies of the New Rosicrucians, though always - it must in fairness be recorded - inclining more and more towards a return to the practice under the Grand Lodge of England; 1786-1811, Provincial Grand Lodge once more ; from 1811 to 1855, Grand Lodge of Hamburg.

II. The Mother Grand Lodge of Eclectic Union, Frankfort-on-the-Main

This system claims emphatically the first place in an English Mason's regard for two reasons other than antiquity, viz. the filial persistency with which it adhered under most difficult circumstances to its connexion with England and the strong common sense which, under every allurement, kept it practically free at all times from the blighting influence of High Degrees, Strict Observance and other Masonic aberrations. The Lodge Union of Frankfort and its allies have never ceased for one moment to work in the purely English and only Freemasonry of three Degrees. Individual members have taken accessory Degrees, have even been commissioned by the Lodge to join other Rites in order to report upon their value and have always reported adversely! The history of this body affords no mysteries to be cleared up; its Minutes are full and complete from the earliest one to the latest; its records are admirably preserved; every statement - on their authority - rests on documentary evidence and, from 1742, literally no question is open to doubt.

The annals of the Eclectic Union have been written by three of its own members - Kloss (Annalen der Loge zur Einigkeit, 1842.), Keller (Geschich. des Eklektischen Freimaurerbundes, 1857), and Karl Paul (Annalen des Eklektischen Freimaurerbundes, 1883. The Handbuch also gives a parallel account, s.v. Frankfurt and Eklektisches-Bund), and as to facts do not differ in the slightest degree. Paul's account is compiled in chronological order, therefore, no difficulties of verification can be experienced.

Frankfort, from its position as a free town of the Empire, the seat of Germany's largest banking houses, the coronation city of its Emperors and the place of meeting of the Imperial Diet, enjoyed obvious advantages for the early propagation of Freemasonry. Evidence, indeed, is not wanting of informal meetings of the Craft at a very early date. But the first indications of a permanent Lodge are the records of fines inflicted as per cash-book of the Union Lodge under date of March 1, 1742. In the same year - March 29 - By-laws were drawn up and signed by the members, June 27. On the last date the Lodge was formally constituted by General de Beaujeu, Marquis de Gentils and Baron won Schell, styling themselves Grand Master and Grand Wardens pro tempore. It is not known by what right they assumed to represent the Grand Lodge of England in this matter ; but even if the offices were self-conferred, in this very irregularity itself may be perceived a striving after the regularity which has since so honourably distinguished this Lodge. That the act (if a usurpation) was soon afterwards condoned, may be gathered from the Charter granted by Lord Ward, Grand Master - February 8, 1743 - which recites that Brother Beaumont, oculist to the Prince of Wales, having assured "us" that the Lodge had been constituted in due form, under the name of Union, as a daughter of the Union Lodge in London, "we do hereby recognize it, etc. and order that the members of either Lodge be considered equally members of the other." Its first Master was Steinheil, its first Warden De la Tierce, who in 1742 produced one of the earliest translations of Anderson's Constitutions (1723) for the use of the Lodge. In the Engraved List, 1744-5, it is depicted as a Union of Angels and its date of constitution is acknowledged, June 17, 1742, with the number 192. Its proceedings were conducted in French until 1744, when it was resolved to work alternately in German and French.

In 1743 Count Schmettau, whose name has several times been mentioned, established a military Lodge in Frankfort, which amalgamated with the Union - January 17, 1744 - and in 1745 the Union assumed the powers of a Mother-Lodge by constituting the Lodge of the Three Lions at Marburg, which was not, however, registered in England at the time and first appears in the Engraved List for 1767 as No. 393.

In 1746 - October 24 - the Lodge resolved to close its doors, owing to the paucity of attendance and other reasons. It was reopened August 16, 1752, by Steinheil. In 1758 a Constitution was granted to a very short-lived Lodge at Mayence and the occupation of Frankfort by the French army gave rise to several irregular Lodges in the city. The Lodge strove its best to preserve order, but ineffectually for some time, until it at length singled out for mutual support and assistance a Lodge which had grown up in the Swedish regiment, Royal Deux Ponts, quartered at Frankfort. On May 12, 1761, it constituted the Lodge Joseph of Union in Nuremberg and - May 29, 1762 - legitimated the Royal Deux Ponts Lodge. The invitation of the Berlin Three Globes - March 8, 1765 - to join the Strict Observance, was declined, also a proposal to pay Schubart's expenses in order that he might instruct them in the new Rite. The Daughter-Lodge at Nuremberg was, however, at this time won over to the Templars, although it did not formally sever its connexion with Frankfort till two years later-1767. The greatest blot on the history of the Lodge Union, is its refusal from a very early date to recognize the eligibility of Jewish candidates, an error nevertheless which it amended much earlier than many other German Lodges. In 1766 it refused a warrant to Cassel, because Jews were among the petitioners. At this period J. P. Gogel, a former Master of the Lodge, whose commercial pursuits often called him to England, was commissioned to petition for a Provincial Grand Lodge patent for Frankfort, which was granted by Lord Blaney, Grand Master - August zo, 1766 - to J. P. Gogel, Provincial Grand Master for the Upper and Lower Rhine and of Franconia. Gogel produced his patent in Frankfort - October 28 - and the Provincial Grand Lodge was accordingly constituted on the 31st, with the Lodges Union of Frankfort, Marburg, Deux Ponts and Nuremberg as daughters. On this occasion Gogel declared that he invested the Lodge Union with his personal rights and that no Provincial Grand Master should, in future, exercise the office for more than two or three years. In this he exceeded his powers, because a Provincial patent is always a personal distinction, a Provincial Grand Master not being elected by the Province, but appointed by the Grand Master; and, as events proved, the well-meant intentions of Gogel were incapable of realization. The officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge - Deputy Grand Master, Senior and Junior Wardens - were the Masters of the Union, Marburg and Nuremberg Lodges respectively; but the members, at first all Master Masons, afterwards Wardens - present and past - were drawn from the Union only. Out of the latter, each of the other Lodges might select a repre sentative. It will be seen that the Union, subsequently the other Lodges in Frank fort, were always exceptionally favoured. Among the first members of the Provincial Grand Lodge were Karl Brönner, Peter F. Passavant and F. W. Mohler.

In 1767 the Nuremberg Lodge threw off its allegiance and joined the Strict Observance, whose emissary, Schubart, had arrived in Frankfort in December 1766. His propaganda failed to influence the Provincial Grand Lodge or its daughter, Union, but he succeeded in erecting, in February 1767, a Lodge of the Three Thistles at Frankfort, which for many years proved a thorn in the side of the Brethren.

According to his promise Gogel resigned - October 23, 1768 - but was reelected - November 10, 1770 - Mohler serving as Grand Master in the interim. The former, on his return from England in 1772, constituted a Lodge at Strasburg, which almost immediately afterwards seceded to the Strict Observance. In the same year the Deux Ponts Lodge also joined the enemy.

In December 1772 Prince Ludwig George Karl of Hesse, an enthusiastic convert to von Hund's system, addressed a letter to the Provincial Grand Lodge, expatiating on the advantages of the new Rite, invited the Grand Lodge to join him and quietly proposed that Gogel should abdicate in his favour ! The offer was declined.

On November 30, 1773, Zinnendorff concluded his compact with England, by which all the existing German Lodges were handed over to him. The Provincial Grand Lodge at Frankfort, however, was given the choice, during Gogel's life, either of retaining its then existing position, or of making terms for a Provincial Grand Patent with Zinnendorff. In either case, after Gogel's death, the district was to revert to the newly erected National Grand Lodge for all Germany, i.e. Zinnendorff's Prince Ferdinand, Provincial Grand Master for Brunswick, was granted the same alternative. The treaty was not communicated at once to Frankfort and, whatever excuses England might have urged in extenuation, so far as regarded Hamburg, which had strayed from the right road, its action was not only uncalled for, but highly discreditable in the case of Frankfort, the truest daughter the English Grand Lodge ever had cause to rejoice over. No excuse whatever can be pleaded, except the profound ignorance of the Grand Lodge of Englandor, it may be, of its Secretary, James Heseltine‑with regard to the true state of the Craft abroad, an ignorance which, in the opinion of all dispassionate inquirers, will heighten rather than extenuate, the grave error related.

In 1774 the Marburg Lodge formally threw off its allegiance, leaving the Union as the sole support of the Provincial Grand Lodge. In spite of this isolated position Gogel accompanied a letter of inquiry respecting the arrangement with Zinnendorff by a contribution of £3o for Freemasons' Hall and £4 for the Charity. At the same time he pointed out that the only truly English Lodge in Germany was the Frankfort Lodge and that both the Zinnendorff and Strict Observance systems were something totally different. This and further protests on Gogel's part only produced an answer from England in 1775, in which, after praising Frankfort as the best and only support of true Freemasonry, he was nevertheless advised to come to some arrangement with Zinnendorff. It being quite evident that, in these circumstances, England would not acknowledge a successor to Gogel - in whose name the Provincial patent was made out, on which Frankfort based its claimsit was determined that he should not resign his office as at first intended. Freemasonry in Frankfort, however, languished and, between 1775 and 1777, no sittings of Grand Lodge were held. From 1777-8o negotiations, initiated by the Landgrave Karl of Hesse, were carried on with this Prince, who held out special inducements to Frankfort to join the Strict Observance. Gogel, Bronner, Passavant and Küsstner were advanced to the highest Degree of this Rite as a test and‑advised against it. The negotiations then fell through at the last moment. Knigge, with the teachings of the Illuminati, failed even to obtain a hearing from the Lodge in 178o, although here again several Brethren - for example, Kusstner, Bronner, J. P. von Leonhardi, Pascha, Noel, Du Fay, etc. - gave the Society a trial. The Provincial Grand Lodge refused to yield to, or capitulate with, Zinnendorff and, with its daughter Union, plodded on its lonely road.

In 1782 - March 12 - Gogel died; on the 17th Peter F. Passavant was elected Grand Master; on the 18th Pascha, who was about to leave for London, was commissioned to apply for a new Provincial patent, made out this time in the name of the Lodge, not in that of the Grand Master, also to procure answers to several other questions. In London he failed to obtain the ear of Grand Lodge, except through J. Leonhardi, Master of the Pilgrim Lodge (Loge der Pilger), who, as Zinnendorff's representative, was scarcely likely to assist him. The utmost concession offered to Pascha was, that like the Berlin Royal York, the Frankfort Union should content itself with the position of an English constituted Lodge, independent of any German superior. The result is not surprising. The Frankfort Fraternity decided - November 24, 1782 - to assert, maintain and exercise its acquired rights as the Provincial Grand Lodge for the Upper and Lower Rhine and Franconia, omitting the title English. They contended - with much force - that the right of assembling as a Provincial Grand Lodge had been granted to them, quamdiu se bene gesserint, therefore could not be revoked, except by mutual consent, or on cause shown, that the Frankfort body had been guilty of misconduct or neglect.

It will be remembered that it was precisely at this period that von Hund's Templar system received its coup de grâce at Wilhelmsbad and German Freemasonry entered upon a transition state. From the consequent confusion emerged the Eclectic Union. In order thoroughly to understand this movement, we must for the moment turn to the free city of Wetzlar-on-the-Lahn, in Rhenish Prussia. In that city the Frankfort Three Thistles warranted in 1767 a Strict Observance Lodge, Joseph of the Three Helmets. To this was added the Scots Lodge, Joseph of the Imperial Eagle - a mother Lodge, which warranted a whole string of Strict Observance Lodges. The Templar Chapter was, in 1777, transferred from the unfruitful soil of Frankfort to Wetzlar, at its head being von Ditfurth. On the decay of the Templar system, the Scots Lodge assumed the position of an independent Provincial Grand Lodge. Von Ditfurth then conceived the idea of the Eclectic Union and communicated with Bronner of Frankfort, who revised his suggestions - considerably improving them - and at a meeting of the Frankfort Provincial Grand Lodge - February 9, 1783 - sketched out the future lines of the proposed body. The result was a joint circular to all German Lodges from the two Provincial Grand Lodges in question, dated March 18, and 21, 1783. The daughter Lodges - one at Wetzlar excepted - to the number of 14, immediately gave in their adhesion to the new organization, viz. at Wetzlar, Munich, Augsburg, Neuwied, Munster, Lautern, Cassel, Rothenburg, Aix-la-Chapelle, Salzburg, Wiesbaden, Brunn, Giessen and Bentheim-Steinfurth.

On August z4, 1783, after due consideration, the Union Lodge also joined and, in December of the same year, the Strict Observance Lodge of the Three Thistles (at Frankfort) rejected the Rectified Templar Rite and amalgamated with the Union Lodge.

The success of the new organization was such, that by 1789 no fewer than 53 Lodges had expressed a desire to be enrolled under its banner, including Lodges in Copenhagen, Warsaw, Kiew, Naples, etc. ; but a great number of these could not be accepted for political and other reasons, while many others had soon after to be closed on similar grounds.

The chief features of the Eclectic Union were as follow: - Perfect equality of all Lodges among themselves and entire independence of any superior authority - Masonry, by common consent, held to be composed of three Degrees only uniformity of ritual in those three Degrees - every Lodge free to superimpose any fancy Degrees it chose (hence the term Eclectic), but the Degrees so conferred and the members thereof were to enjoy no recognition as such in the Lodge - the Master to be elected and himself to appoint the other officers - the bond of union to consist in the regular communication to each Lodge of every other Lodge's proceedings - the Provincial Lodges for Frankfort and Wetzlar to be the two centres, undertaking this work of distribution under the name of Directorial Lodges - the Master Masons of other systems to be admitted as visitors to the Lodges, without any recognition of professedly superior Degrees of which they might be in possession - Warrants of Constitution to be granted in the name of the Eclectic Union by either of the Directorial Lodges, etc. The permission to add High Degrees soon lapsed by non-user and was subsequently withdrawn, even before the Statutes were definitely altered ; with the result that an attempt, a very few years afterwards, to introduce the Royal Arch into Frankfort was summarily suppressed. The Wetzlar Lodge also from the first took a less leading position than Frankfort and gradually died out. In 1783 the Ritual was revised, conformably in all essentials with the English Rite, save that it insisted upon the candidate being a Christian - an enactment which was the cause of much trouble.

In 1784 the Harmony and Concord and, in 1785, the Compasses, Lodges at Trieste and Gotha respectively, joined the Eclectic Union.

In 1785 Graefe, of whom mention has already been made in connexion with Hamburg, offered his services to Frankfort and negotiations with England were commenced.

On May 21, 1786, Passavant died and was succeeded as Provincial Grand Master by J. P. von Leonhardi. At this date the roll of the Union showed 25 Lodges, 7 of which, however - probably for political reasons - were unnamed in the published list.

Through Graefe's exertions, a compact was entered into with England - March 1, 1788 - reinstating the Provincial Grand Lodge. The clauses of most interest to this sketch are §1, granting the Lodge permission to elect its own Grand Master every two or three years ; §2, promising on the part of London not to issue Warrants in the Jurisdiction of Frankfort, except in cases where the Provincial Grand Lodge could not grant them; §6, Frankfort Lodges might obtain English registry on payment of the usual fees.

The last Minute of the Wetzlar Lodge which reached Frankfort is dated July 11, 1788 ; it expresses a wish to conclude a similar treaty with England. But the Lodge was already moribund and the desire was never realized.

On January 13, 1788, new Statutes were passed by 30 Lodges, of which 8 by desire were unnamed. It is noteworthy that the Provincial Grand Lodge was still formed exclusively of members of the Union Lodge, every other Lodge being allowed - as before - to appoint one of these as its representative.

Leonhardi's patent as Provincial Grand Master for the Upper and Lower Rhine and Franconia, signed by Lord Effingham, Acting Grand Master, is dated February 20, 1789 ; on its receipt the installation festival was held, October 25, 1789; and Kloss remarks that no fewer than 29 Lodges sought and obtained English registry (Annalen der Loge Zur Einigkeit, p. 238). A careful comparison of the English Lodge lists, however, shows at most io Lodges. These are, according to the numeration from 1792 to 1813, Nos. 456, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479 and 588. On December 5, 1789, Leonhardi was elected Provincial Grand Master for a second term.

The peculiar position of the Grand Lodge as a Directorial Lodge of the Union and, at the same time, a Provincial Grand Lodge under England, gave rise to some apprehensions respecting the future independence of the private Lodges. Bode cleverly seized this incident to lend colour to his circular issued November 24, 1790, by the Eclectic Lodge at Gotha, calling on all Eclectic Lodges to rearrange themselves under a new organization with the title of German Masonic Union. As a result the Gotha Lodge was naturally erased from the roll of Eclectic Lodges. In the same year the Lodge at Carlsruhe closed for political reasons, that at Giessen on account of quarrels among its members. The Lodge at Nuremberg, Three Arrows, protested against Gotha's exclusion, because it had been effected without the assent of the other Lodges or hearing Gotha's defence; ultimately, in 1792, it severed its connexion with the Eclectic Union and joined the Gotha or Bode's Union.

In 1790 a few members of Lodge Union attempted to introduce the Royal Arch. Although they kept the Chapter entirely separate from the Lodge, they met with decided opposition from the other Brethren and the Degree was soon suffered to lapse. After many years it is heard of again. In 1842 the three surviving members of this stillborn Chapter deposited a sealed case in the archives containing the statutes, rituals and documents, to be opened after their deaths. On August 30, 1791, von Ditfurth, of Wetzlar, resigned his office of Provincial Grand Master, also that of Master of his Lodge, from which time Frankfort reigned supreme without even the shadow of a rival.

Leonhardi resigned his office - October 19, 1792 - and was succeeded - February 6, 1793 - as Provincial Grand Master by Johann Karl Brönner. During this year the Lodge at Kaufbeuren closed for political reasons. These made themselves also felt in Frankfort, so that - June 8, 1793 - Brönner closed the Grand Lodge. On the 9th the French troops entered the city and, although the private Lodges still showed some slight activity throughout the occupation, the Grand Master did not reopen Grand Lodge until October 29, 1801. Of all the former toe Eclectic Lodges only seven survived these eight troublous years - those of Aix-la-Chapelle, Altenburg, Frankfort, Hildesheim, Munster, Rudolstadt and Krefeld; of these only the Frankfort Union had remained faithful to the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union.

Unfortunately this long slumber had induced the English Lodge Royal York, at Berlin, which, in 1798, had constituted itself a Grand Lodge, to consider the Provincial Grand Lodge for Frankfort as extinct and, in consequence - December 4, 1801 - it warranted a Frankfort Lodge, Socrates of Constancy. Bronner protested against this infraction of jurisdiction and, in his appeal to England in 1805, com plained of being left for three years without any replies to his letters. This letter also was left unanswered, for which perhaps the wars may be responsible; but the consequent strained relations between Frankfort and Berlin prevented the former joining a union which the Royal York, the Grand Lodge of Hanover and the Provincial Grand Lodge for Hamburg had formed among themselves. This Lodge Socrates remained as a stumbling-block for many subsequent years.

Between 1803 and 1805 the Grand Lodge was once more closed, to which act many reasons, political and otherwise, contributed. Meanwhile the Nuremberg Lodge (formerly of the Eclectic Union) had endeavoured to induce Frankfort to accept Schroeder's Ritual. The Provincial Grand Lodge for Frankfort once more, in spite of England's neglect, showed her filial allegiance by declining - February 27, 1805 - to accede, being unable to take upon herself the responsibility of eliminating the obligation without superior permission. This subject also formed part of Bronner's letter already alluded to.

In 1806 Frankfort became a Grand Duchy, with Karl von Dalberg over it as Prince Primate (Fürst Primas). Bronner petitioned for permission to prosecute Masonic work and closed the Provincial Grand Lodge until a reply was received. This arrival - verbally transmitted - July 2, 1808, to the effect that, as Prince Primate, he must ignore their labours, but, as Karl von Dalberg, he would permit them.

On July 12, 1808, the Grand Orient of France warranted a Lodge in Frankfort, composed chiefly of Jews, under the name of the Nascent Dawn. This Lodge also was a source of trouble and vexation in later days.

But the Provincial Grand Lodge was strengthened in 1808 by the reawakening of the Ulm Lodge, in i 8ocg by the revival of the Lodges at Carlsruhe and Freiburg and by a new Lodge at Heidelberg. In this same year the above Lodges at Carlsruhe and Freiburg, together with an old Lodge at Heidelberg, joined in erecting a National Grand Lodge, Union of Baden, without, however, seceding from the Eclectic Union; merely ceasing to own allegiance to the Provincial Grand Lodge as such. On May 3, 1811, a compact was made with the Lodge Socrates, in view of its adhesion to the Provincial Grand Lodge, that the latter should in future be composed of members of the Socrates and Union Lodges equally, but that the Grand Master should always be elected from the Union. Lodge Socrates accordingly entered the Eclectic Union - May 12, 1811. June 24, Lodge Joseph of Nuremberg, which had been constituted by the Union in 1761 and had seceded to the Strict Observance in 1767, took advantage of its jubilee to join the Eclectic Union. Per contra the Ulm Lodge was compelled to close by a royal decree.

Brönner died March 22, 1812, and was succeeded as Grand Master by Jean Noe Du Fay.

April 4, 1813, a new Lodge was warranted at Offenbach ; but a Grand Ducal decree of February 16 of the same year, closing all Lodges in Baden, robbed the Eclectic Union of its daughter Lodges in Freiburg, Heidelberg and Carlsruhe.

A decree of the Prince Primate of April 30, 1813, detrimental to the progress of Freemasonry, had little time allowed it in which to take effect; the events of 1814 being still more detrimental to the Prince himself.

1814 witnessed a revisal of the Ritual, in which the oath was ordered to be recited but not taken. With the exception of a few exclusively Christian allusions, this Ritual remained in force until 1871.

1816 brought an accession of strength in the Lodges Ernest at Coburg and St. John the Evangelist of Concord at Darmstadt. A new Lodge was constituted at Giessen, May 29, 1817 and, on the 25th of the same month, a Lodge at Worms warranted by the Grand Orient of France in 1811 was affiliated. In 1817 also, a quarrel arose between the Frankfort Provincial Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of England. The Lodge Nascent Dawn, chiefly Jewish, warranted by the Grand Orient of France in 18o8, sought anew Constitution. The Jewish element rendering a resort to the Provincial Grand Lodge futile, the Brethren applied to the Landgrave Karl of Hesse, who at once enrolled them among the rectified Templar Lodges, even forced upon them a Scots Lodge with the peculiarly Christian Degrees of that Rite. As a natural consequence, the Lodge split up. The Christians retained Karl's warrant for Lodge Karl of the Dawning Light, whilst the Jews applied to the Duke of Sussex and were constituted as the Nascent Dawn. Both Lodges were treated by the Provincial Grand Lodge as clandestine and much bitterness arose. The Grand Lodge of England, however, in this case had clearly acted within the meaning of 1z of the 1788 compact, although perhaps more time for reflection ought to have been granted to the Provincial Grand Lodge. The latter body, however, by its notorious prohibition of Jewish members, had put itself quite out of court.

In 1818 a new Lodge at Mayence was warranted, but seceded to the Royal York Grand Lodge in 1821.

Du Fay died February 24, 1820 and, on August 5, Leonhardi, under whom the compact of 1788 was made with England, was elected Grand Master for the second time. It was fated that under him also the broken bonds which he had himself reknit should finally be severed. It was resolved - August 5, 1821 - to make one more effort to obtain redress from England for its alleged encroachment and this having failed, it was agreed‑January 13, i8zz‑to renounce the English supremacy. Accordingly - March 27, 1823 - the Provincial Lodge assumed the title of "The Mother Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union" and notified this act to the Masonic world by a circular of November 14, 1823. All allusions to a mere directorial Lodge, primus inter pares, were apparently dropped for ever.

The Grand Lodge commenced its new career with a following of 9 Lodges. - In Frankfort, 2 - Union, Socrates; in Nuremberg, 2 - Three Arrows, Joseph; and 1 each in Darmstadt, Giessen, Coburg, Offenbach and Worms.

Leonhardi, who resigned March 3, 1826 and refused a re‑election on account of his advanced age, died November 23, 18 Constantine Fellner succeeded him as Grand Master.

On May 2 following Dr. George Kloss was first elected a member of the Grand Lodge. This celebrated Mason, skilful physician, diligent Masonic student and historian, was born at Frankfort July 31, 1787, admitted to the Fraternity at the age of 18 as a Lewis - September 28, 1805 - by the Lodge Union, of which he was elected Master in 1828. His Masonic works have been quoted so repeatedly in these pages, as to render any further allusion to them unnecessary. As a Masonic critic, he was emphatically facile princeps and, owing to the strength of his convictions acquired by the study of Masonic documents, it is easy to conceive that from the moment of his entering Grand Lodge, that body would have no peace until it renounced its errors, at the head of which Kloss naturally placed the exclusion of Jews - as he doubtless would have done in the case of any members of a particular race or religion - from the benefits of the Craft.

With the altered position of the Grand Lodge there remained no valid reason why the Grand Master should be elected from the members of the Union Lodge only. The Socrates Lodge now commenced to agitate for a status in all respects equal to that of the Union and, in 1828, a revision of the Constitutions was commenced, but the work lasted many years.

Owing to the religious intolerance of the Grand Lodge, its territory was once more invaded by the Grand Orient of France, which - December 2, 1832 - warranted a Lodge, Frankfort Eagle, composed largely of Jews. In the following years a strong feeling favourable to the Jewish Lodges and to the Landgrave Karl's Lodge, Karl of the Dawning Light, sprang up in the Fraternity and was reflected by the younger members of the Grand Lodge. The Grand Officers, who were all old members, finding themselves powerless to stem the current, resigned in a body - November 14, 1834 - and, on December z3, Johann Friedrich Fiedler was elected Grand Master, with Kloss as his Deputy. The Landgrave Karl died August 17, 1836 and his Lodge almost immediately afterwards began to negotiate for admission to the Union. On September 24 following, Fielder died and - March 3, 1837 - Kloss was elected Grand Master. In 1839 one of Karl's Lodges - in Alzey - joined the Eclectic Union.

1840 witnessed two important steps. On March 9 it was resolved to admit Jewish Brethren as visitors. This being the date of Kloss's retirement from office, he could, at least, congratulate himself that the battle was half won. He was succeeded as Grand Master by Gerhard Friedrich, D.D. The second step was the conclusion of the negotiations with the Lodge Karl of the Dawning Light and its admission to the Eclectic Union, September 27, 1840.

The centenary festival of the Union Lodge was held June 27, 1842, when, as already stated, the documents of the long - forgotten Royal Arch Chapter were deposited in the archives and the proceedings were graced by the presentation of Kloss's Annals of the Union Lodge - an invaluable mine of Masonic lore - compiled for the occasion.

Kloss was re-elected Grand Master, May 12, 1843 and, under his inspiration, the Grand Officers made a vigorous effort to render the Grand Lodge ordinances less sectarian in their tenor, but unsuccessfully, as the motion was adjouned sine die - December 4, 1843.

But, although most of the Eclectic Lodges were tending towards a more enlightened view on this subject, the newly-joined Lodge, Karl of the Dawning Light, showed itself strongly conservative. It still insisted on working the Scots Degrees and allowed itself great licence with the Eclectic Ritual. This led to expostulations, recriminations and strife, finally to its exclusion, July 2, 1844. The Lodges at Darmstadt and Mayence took the part of Lodge Karl and seceded in September 1845 ; these three then united in order to found the Grand Lodge of Concord at Darmstadt on a purely and rigidly Christian basis. The gap caused by the absence of these Lodges was only partially filled in the same year by a new warrant for a Lodge Of Brotherly Truth at Hamburg, granted to nine dissenting members of the Golden Sphere (Zinnendorff Rite).

A necessary statute, the Reorganization Act, was at length passed, December 27, 1845. The arrangements which chiefly interest us were, that the High Degrees were absolutely forbidden; the Grand Lodge was composed of two representatives from each Lodge, to be chosen by them from subscribing members of the Frankfort Lodges (at this time only two, Union and Socrates) - they were, however, permitted in lieu of this to depute two of their own members ; the Grand Master and the Grand Officers were to be elected for a term of three years from among the representatives.

June 17, 1846, Gerhard Friedrich was again elected Grand Master. In the following year - October 1 - the Grand Lodge was reorganized, as provided by the above Act and the voting for Grand Master resulted in the election of Franz Fresenius, of the Socrates Lodge - the first holder of that office who was not a member of the Union Lodge.

December 15, 1847, twelve more Brethren of the Golden Sphere Lodge in Hamburg were granted an Eclectic Constitution as the Lodge of the Brother-Chain. At length, early in 1848, the last relic of intolerance was cast aside and the ritual purged of its specifically Christian requirements. This resulted in immediate negotiations with the Jewish Lodge Nascent Dawn, which, however, did not bear fruit for some months. The other Jewish Lodge, Frankfort Eagle, joined the Grand Lodge of Hamburg in the same year. On July 15, 1848, Past Grand Master Fellner died.

The revision of the Statutes - November 13, 1849 - is of interest, as, by a clause which insisted that country Lodges should choose their representatives, one from each Frankfort Lodge, the whole power was once more thrown into the hands of the metropolitan Fraternity. It was also decided to elect the Grand Master alternately from the two Frankfort Lodges.

Meanwhile, the members of Lodge Karl had altered their views since assisting at the birth of the Darmstadt Grand Lodge. A few of them formed a new Darmstadt Lodge in Frankfort, Karl of Lindenberg ; but Lodge Karl itself, with the majority of the Brethren, rejoined the Eclectic Union, June 30, 1850.

In the same year - December 2 - Dr. J. W. J. Pfarr was elected Grand Master, after whom - November 28, 1853 - came Fresenius once more, then Pfarr again, December 1, 1856. The most important event of these six years was the death of Dr. Kloss, February 10, 1854.

In 1858 a Constitution was granted to Wiesbaden - May 2 - and the Statutes of Grand Lodge were revised in December, so as to place Karl on an equality with the other two Frankfort Lodges ; the Grand Master to be elected from each Lodge alternately every two years.

In 1859 - January 13 - the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt ordered all Lodges in his dominions to rally round the Darmstadt Grand Lodge. This entailed the loss of four Lodges to the Eclectic Union.

In the following year - March 23 - the Grand Lodge was reconstituted under the new Act and Dr. George Dancker elected Grand Master. The roll comprised ten Lodges - Union, Socrates and Karl, of Frankfort; Joseph and Three Arrows, of Nuremberg ; Brotherly Love and Brother‑Chain, of Hamburg; Ernest, of Coburg ; Libanon, of Erlangen ; and Plato, of Wiesbaden.

December 6, 1861, Johann Kaspar Bauer was elected Grand Master; December 4, 1863, Julius Fester; and, January iz, 1865, Dr. Dancker once more. In 1866 Frankfort became an integral part of the Kingdom of Prussia, in which, according to law, no Lodges were allowed to exist except those dependent upon one of the three Grand Lodges at Berlin. There was, therefore, much danger of the Eclectic Union being dissolved by the authorities. This, however, was obviated by the prudent and patriotic course of action pursued by its members. Under closely analogous circumstances - and, presumably, for reasons which did not apply in both cases - the Grand Lodge of Hanover was extinguished; but the law, although in force, had not been applied as regards Frankfort.

In 1867 - December 6 - Hermann Hörster (of Lodge Karl) was elected Grand Master; and, December 3, 1869, Heinrich Weismann, under whom - December 8, 1871 - the Statutes were once more revised; the Grand Lodge still consisting of Frankfort Brethren as members, but country Lodges were to depute two of their own members as representatives, with votes in certain cases and a consultative voice in all. The Grand Master was to be elected for three years from the Frankfort Lodges only, dropping the rule of alternation. On January 26, 1872, Grand Lodge was reconstituted under the new Act and Weismann re-elected.

A new Lodge was warranted at Hanau, April 20, 1872 and, on January 10, 1873, the English Lodge at Frankfort, Nascent Dawn, which had been the chief cause of the local declaration of independence, joined the Eclectic Union, entering at once into all the privileges of the other three metropolitan Lodges.

Karl Oppel was elected Grand Master December 4, 1874. In 1877 a regular correspondence was resumed with England; and, May 26, 1878, the Darmstadt Lodge, Karl of Lindenburg, at Frankfort, was affiliated. Revised Constitutions were passed on September 21, 1879; G. E. van der Heyden was elected Grand Master January 21, 1881 ; and, in 1882 - February 17 - another of the Eclectic Lodges was warranted at Strasburg.

The Centenary Festival of the Eclectic Union, held March 18, 1883, was graced by the distribution of the lucid and detailed Annals of that body, from the pen of the Grand Secretary, Karl Paul.

The epoch-marking dates of the Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union are: 1742, constitution of Lodge Union; 1746-52, state of dormancy ; 1766, erection of English Provincial Grand Lodge, 1775-7, temporary closing of Provincial Grand Lodge, 1782, first period of independence; 1783, formation of the Eclectic Union ; 1789, reinstatement of the Provincial Grand Lodge at Frankfort; 1793, Provincial Grand Lodge closed in anticipation of the entry of French troops; 1801, reopened with one daughter only and territory invaded by the Grand Lodge Royal York; 1803-5, Provincial Grand Lodge suspended; again, 1806-8, whilst awaiting Karl von Dalberg's approbation; i808, invasion of jurisdiction by Grand Orient of France; i 8og, loss of Lodges by the formation of the Grand Orient of Baden ; 1814, abolition of the oath; 1817, invasion of jurisdiction by the Grand Lodge of England and Prince Karl of Hesse ; 1823, declaration of independence and proclamation of the Grand Lodge of the Eclectic Union, with 9 daughter Lodges ; 1834, first success of the enlightened party in Grand Lodge; 1840, Karl's Lodge absorbed the Jewish question partly settled; 1845, loss of Lodges by formation of the Grand Lodge of Darmstadt ; 1848, Jewish question solved and Jewish Lodges absorbed; 1859, loss of Lodges by forced union with Darmstadt ; 1866, incorporation of Frankfort with Prussia; 1883, Centenary Festival.

III. The Grand National Mother-Lodge of the Prussian States, called "Of The Three Globes"

The archives and Minutes of this Grand Lodge are complete from September 13, 1740, to 1914, with the exception of a short period in 1765. In 1840 O'Etzel, the Grand Master, compiled a history of the Grand Lodge based upon these Minutes, so that, as far as actual facts extend, its accuracy is unimpeachable. This was revised and continued in 1867, 1869, and 1875 ; and the Constitutions ordained in 1873 that every initiate should, in future, be presented with a copy. This history has been carefully collated with many accounts by other writers, whose works will be quoted whenever used, but otherwise the following io8 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE sketch is given on O'Etzel's authority and may easily be verified by the dates affixed. The edition employed is Geschichte der Grossen National‑Mutter‑Loge !Zu den drei Veltkuglen, etc., Berlin, 187 S .

In pursuing the history of this Grand Body, none can fail to be struck by a feature to which attention has already been directed in the case of the Eclectic Union, viz. the absence of a representative form of government. This, however is only a natural consequence when a Grand Lodge is established before the birth of any of the private Lodges, which it is destined to control‑the daughter Lodges, in all such cases, accepting the inferior and dependent position usually accorded to them, as a necessary adjunct of their constitution. When, on the other hand, several Lodges, with equal rights, join in establishing a ruling body or Grand Lodge, the representative form of government seems to follow as a matter of course. The relations between a Mother‑Lodge and her daughters may be likened to those between England and her Crown colonies ; whilst those between Grand and private Lodges‑which follow the English precedent‑are in closer approximation to the system of government of the United States. But, in like manner as the power of the House of Commons, at first restricted, has gradually increased, so do we find that under Grand Lodges‑even where the sway is most despotic‑something approaching a representative system is in gradual course of introduction.

Individual Masons doubtless existed in Prussia at an early date, but the introduction of Freemasonry into that State may without exaggeration be attributed directly to Frederick the Great as, during the lifetime of his father, who had con ceived an aversion to the Craft, no open assemblage of Masons could possibly take place. In July 173 8 the King of Prussia and the Crown Prince Frederick, being on a visit to the Prince of Orange at Loo, the conversation at table took a Masonic turn. The King attacked the Order violently, but Count Albert Wolfgang of Lippe‑Buckeburg took its part so successfully as to awake in the Crown Prince a desire to join the Craft. Great secrecy was naturally essential to the carrying out of such a project. Count Albert undertook the arrangements and, as the King had announced his intention of visiting. Brunswick during the annual fair, it was resolved that the ceremony of initiation should be performed in that city.

A letter from Baron von Bielfeld written to Baron von . . . [Oberg] the Master of the Lodge in which Bielfeld had been initiated, tells how it was that the Crown Prince Frederick became interested in the Craft. The letter is dated July 2o, 173 8 and is as follows You behave towards me, not as Brother, but as a Father Mason. You are desirous that I should participate in the glory of receiving the Crown Prince of Prussia into our Order. I am fully sensible of the high value of this favour, and am ready to accompany you to Brunswick. It appears by the letter of the Count of Lippe Buckeburg that the idea of becoming a Freemason struck that great prince in a manner very singular. You cannot but admire, Worshipful Master, the concatenation of uncommon events. It was necessary that the King of Prussia should come with a numerous retinue to Loo to visit the Prince of Orange, that he should be accompanied by the Crown Prince, that at table the conversation should turn to Freemasonry, that the King should speak of it disadvantageously, that Count Lippe should undertake its defence, that he should not be dazzled by the authority of majesty, but that, with a noble freedom, he should avow himself to be a Freemason ; that, in going out from the entertainment, the Crown Prince should express to him, in confidence, a desire of becoming a member of that Society and that he should wish his reception to be at Brunswick, where the King, his father, had resolved to go and where the concourse of strangers of every sort, during the approaching fair, would give less suspicion of the arrival of the Brother Masons, who were invited to come there to form a Lodge for that purpose, that Count Lippe should address himself to you to procure to our Order that glorious acquisition and that your friendship should induce you to remember me, that I might also be of the party. Behold, Worshipful Master, a series of remarkable incidents, which make me prophesy a favourable issue to this enterprise. You know that my present station is displeasing and my country irksome to me. I resemble one of those plants which are nothing worth if not transplanted. At Hamburg, I shall, at most, run up to seed and perish. Perhaps the Great Disposer of the Universe will give me a better fortune and will lay the foundations of it at Brunswick. I am preparing all things for my journey. For the rest, I know perfectly well how necessary it is to observe an approving silence with regard to the exhibition of so much delicacy.


No. 1 is the jewel of Lodge Zu den drei Saulen am Weinberge, at Guben ; founded 1843 ; under the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes. It consists of a golden crown, above a Maltese Cross enamelled white, on its centre a golden star, bearing the three columns enamelled within a blue border.

No. 2 is the jewel of Lodge Zur Bestandigkeit and Eintracht, at Aachen, founded in 1778 ; under Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a gold cross, in the centre of which are enamelled two hands clasped around a thunderbolt, on an irradiated triangle.

No. 3 is the jewel of Lodge Zum Verein der Menschenfreunde, at Trier ; founded in 1805 ; under the Royal York Grand Lodge. It consists of a gold ornamented star, in the centre of which, on a white ground, are three hands grasping a wreath. The more modern form of this jewel has a wreath of flowers instead of leaves only.

No. 4 is the jewel of Lodge Alexius zur Bestandigkeit, at Bernburg, founded 1817 ; under Grand Lodge Three Globes. On a silver triangle are an A, seven stars, the name of the Lodge on a blue oblong ; and, behind this silver triangle, a gold inverted triangle, together forming a star. The ribbon is black, with gold edge.

No. 5 is the jewel of Lodge Zun den drei Seraphim, at Berlin ; founded 1744 under Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a gold cross, enamelled in blue, with three seraphim, " 3," and " S " in silver, on the arms and centre of the cross respectively.

No. 6 is the jewel of Lodge Prinz von Preussen, zu den drei Schwertern, at Solingen ; founded 1840 ; under the National Grand Lodge of Germany. It consists of three golden swords, supporting a laurel wreath, within which, on a blue ground, is a crowned eagle on the one side, on the other (No. 6a) a crown and a W.

No. 7 is the jewel of Lodge Wittekind zur westfalisch Pforte, at Minden ; founded in 1780 ; under the Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a silver triangle, on which is a W and a view of the sunrise over a mountain village. Around this is a gold irradiation ; the whole is mounted on a large black velvet star, with two ends of blue ribbon appearing below.

No. 8 is the jewel of Lodge Zum goldenen Apfel, at Dresden; founded 1776 ; under the Grand Lodge of Saxony. This Grand Lodge was founded September 28, 1811. It has 45 subordinate Lodges and a membership of 7,344 Brethren. The Craft Degrees only are worked.

No. 9 is the jewel of Lodge Wahrheit and Einigkeit zu den sieben vereinigten Brudern, at Jiilich ; founded 1815 ; under the Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a golden crown, beneath which is a gold Maltese cross set with mother‑of‑pearl, on the arms of which are clasped hands, W, U and E, respectively In the centre is an irradiated triangle on a blue ground, surrounded by a snake.

No. 10 is the jewel of Lodge Zum schutzenden Thor, at Warendorf. It was founded in 1817, and became extinct in 1840. It consists of a golden cross, enamelled in blue, and bearing the name of the Lodge, whilst in the centre is a wall, with a gate partly open. Suspended from the bottom are the compasses, trowel and hammer.

No. 11 is the jewel of Lodge Zum goldenen schwerdt, at Wesel ; founded 1775 ; under the Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a golden crown, from which hangs a silver triangle with a blue centre and golden ornaments, whilst over all is the Golden Sword.

No. 12 is the jewel of Lodge Georg zur deutschen Eiche, at Uelzen ; founded 1860 ; under the Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of two silver triangles, the upper of which bears a tree with a golden G entwined around the stem ; the lower part of this triangle has a dark‑blue ground.

No. 13 is the jewel of Lodge Hermann zum Lande der Berge, at Elberfeld ; founded 1815 ; under the Grand Lodge Three Globes. It consists of a golden cross enamelled in black, bearing the name of the Lodge ; whilst in the centre is a group of three mountains, the centre one a volcano, properly coloured.

The task of receiving the Prince into the Order was confided to von Oberg, Master of the then anonymous Lodge in Hamburg, who, with the secretary, Bielfeld and a Baron von Lowen, travelled to Brunswick and, on August i i, met by arrange ment the Count of Kielmansegge and F. C. Albedyll from Hanover, also Count Albert. Count Wartensleben joined the Prince as a second candidate. During the night August 14‑15, '173 8, the Prince and his friend came to the hotel where the Hamburg Brethren were staying and, after midnight, the two candidates were received in due form, no difference being made as regards the Prince, in compliance with his own special request.

The following letter, written from Brunswick, where the initiation of the Crown Prince took place, on August 24, '1738, to Herr von St. . . . at Hamburg (evidently a member of the Craft) contains a detailed account of the initiation of the Prince, together with some further particulars. Its interest and importance must be a set‑off to its length.

Your villainous fever, my very dear Brother, appears to me more insolent than that of the Princess Urania. It has not only attacked you in the flower of your days, but has laid this snare for you at a period that might have influenced all the remainder of your life. It has deprived you of the glory and the advantage of having assisted at the reception of the Crown Prince of Prussia and of there perform ing the office of Overseer, to which you were appointed. How unfortunate 1 Turn it out then, whatever may be said of your rich apartment, this villainous fever and be radically cured against our return. We do not expect to make any long stay at Brunswick, because there is here one crowned head too many, who might discover that we have received the Prince, his son, into our Order and, in his ill‑humour, might be wanting in respect to the Worshipful Master.

In the meantime, my dear Brother, I shall acquit myself of my promise, and here employ the first moments of my leisure in giving you an exact account of our journey and success.

We left Hamburg, Baron O. . . . [Oberg], Baron L. . . . [Lowen], and myself the i oth of August and arrived the next evening at the gates of Brunswick. The officers of the custom began to examine our luggage. This authoritative ceremony put us into a great consternation. Judge of our embarrasment. We had with us a large trunk filled with the furniture, insignia and instruments necessary for holding a Lodge. All these might be deemed contraband, notwithstanding the privilege of the fair. We held a council instantly. If the officer should persist in opening the trunk, there was nothing to be done but to declare ourselves conjurers or mountebanks. But we were soon eased of our fears, for, by virtue of a ducat which I slipped into the officer's hand, he declared that we were persons of quality and incapable of defrauding the customs.

We took up our quarters at the Corn Hotel : it is the principal inn of the town; anywhere else it would be reckoned a tolerably good alehouse. Count L. . . ., Count K. . . . and Baron A. . . . of Hanover arrived there almost at the same instant and joined us the same night. Rabon, valet to M. O. . . ., and a good Mason, was appointed to the duties of Tyler and acquitted himself to a miracle. The next morning, the cannons of the rampart declared the arrival of the King of Prussia and his train. The presence of a crowned head and the affluence of all sorts of strangers, which the fair had brought to Brunswick, made the town appear hightly animated. We agreed that none of us should appear at Court, except Count L. . . ., whom we deputed to the Crown Prince to receive his orders relative to the day, the hour and the place of his reception.

H.R.H. appointed the night between the 14th and 15th and chose it should be in our apartment, which was, in fact, very spacious and quite convenient for the business.

There was only one inconvenience, which was the vicinity of M.W. . . ., who lived in the apartment adjoining to our antechamber and was separated from it by a thin partition. He might, therefore, have heard all and told all. This reflection alarmed us, but as our Hanoverian Brethren knew the hour at which he was sent to drown, as the song says, his sorrowful reason in wine, we seized his foible, we attacked him by turns after dinner and, being prepared to encounter with him at chinking of glasses, we left him towards night so fast, that he would have slept by the side of a battery and the thyrus of Bacchus served us on this occasion as effectually as could have done the finger of the god Harpocrates.

On the 14th the whole day was spent in preparation for the Lodge and, little after midnight, we saw arrive the Crown Prince accompanied by Count W. . . ., Captain in the King's Regiment at Potsdam.

The Prince presented this gentleman as a candidate whom he recommended and whose reception he wished immediately to follow his own. He defied us likewise to omit in his reception any rigorous ceremony that was used in similar cases, to grant him no indulgence whatever, but gave us leave on this occasion to treat him merely as a private person. In a word, he was received with all the usual and requisite formalities. I admired his intrepidity, the serenity of his countenance and his graceful deportment, even in the most critical moments. I had prepared a short address, of which he testified his approbation and, after the two receptions, we opened the Lodge and proceeded to our work. He appeared highly delighted and acquitted himself with as much dexterity as discernment.

I do assure you, my dear Brother, that I have conceived very great expectations from this Prince. He is not of a remarkable stature and would not have been chosen to have ruled in the place of Saul, but, when we consider the strength and beauty of his genius, we cannot but desire for the prosperity of the people, to see him fill the throne of Prussia. His features are highly pleasing, with a sprightly look and a noble air; and it depends altogether on himself to appear as perfectly engaging. A petit maitre of Paris would not, perhaps, admire his curls ; his hair, however, is of a bright brown, carelessly curled, but well adapted to his countenance. His large blue eyes have at once something severe, soft and gracious. I was surprised to find in him so youthful an air. [The Prince was, at this time, in his twenty‑seventh year.] His behaviour, in every respect, is that of a person of exalted rank and he is the most polite man in all that kingdom over which he is born to rule. He gave to the Worshipful Master, Baron von O. . . . the most delicate and flattering instance of regard. I say nothing of his moral qualities: it would be difficult to discern them at one interview, but I protest to you that there was no part of his conversation which did not mark great dignity of mind and the utmost benevolence of temper and, for the truth of this, I appeal to the public voice.

All was finished soon after four in the morning and the Prince returned to the Duke's palace, in all appearance as well satisfied with us as we were charmed with him. I hastened to bed completely fatigued with the business of the day.

The letter contains the following amusing postscript The Freemasons have certainly good reason to please themselves on having for their Brother one who is undoubtedly the greatest genius of any Prince in Europe, but if they think that this, or any other relation, will supply with that wise Prince the place of merit, they are greatly deceived. Some time since a Freemason, it is said, endeavoured to intrude himself on a King by virtue of this connexion, but the monarch, finding that the man had no other merit, took no notice of him. The man, therefore, determined to enforce his application by making a sign, which the King answered by turning his back on the man and waving the hind flap of his coat.

Baron Jacob Friedrich von Bielfeld, who was one of the earliest known members of the Craft in Germany, was initiated in 1738, when he was twenty‑one years of age. He became a well‑known German diplomat of the eighteenth century, among the high positions held by him being Secretary of Legation to the King of Prussia, Preceptor to Prince Ferdinand, Chancellor of the Universities in the Dominions of his Prussian Majesty, which duties took him in turn to the Netherlands, France and England. In 1748 he was raised to the peerage and he was also honoured with the appointment of Privy Councillor. He was the author of several works, which were translated into Italian, Russian and German, as he invariably wrote in the French language but, during the later years of his life, he edited and published a German weekly, which was translated into French. Among his works are four volumes of Intimate Letters, in one of which is an interesting exposition of his reasons for seeking initiation. It is evidently addressed to his betrothed and it is dated from Hamburg, February 6, 173 8. As will be seen from the extracts given, it is of some importance.

So you are quite alarmed, Madame, very seriously angry! My reason tells me you are wrong, but my passion tells me you can never do wrong, for it makes me perceive that I love you more, if it be possible, since I have been a Freemason and since you have been angry with me for so being, than I ever did before. Permit me, therefore, by this opportunity, to employ all my rhetoric to dissipate your discontent, that you may approve the motives which have induced me to take this step, that you may restore me to your favour and that I may be enabled to reconcile my reason with my passion.

Nothing can be more unjust or ridiculous than to imagine that the secret assemblies of the Freemasons can tend to disturb the security or the tranquillity of a State, for, though our doors are shut against the profane vulgar, they are at all times open to sovereigns and magistrates and how many illustrious princes and statesmen do we count among our Brethren ? If ought passed in our Lodges that was dangerous or criminal, must they not have been long since abolished ? But the experience of many ages, during which the Order has never been known to perform any actions but those of morality and munificence, is a stronger argument in its favour than any I can produce. I shall, therefore, say no more upon this matter and I should not have said so much, if I did not know that you are capable of feeling the force of these arguments.

The postscript to the letter runs I herewith send you a pair of lady's gloves that were given me by the Lodge at my reception. The apple was decreed by Paris to the most beautiful, but these gloves are for the best beloved.

It is interesting to note the stress made by Baron Bielfeld on the antiquity of the Craft. This was within twenty‑one years of the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, while eight years previously, in England, Dr. Rawlinson, in the manu script collections which he left, which are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, emphasized the same feature. Although neither produces any historical confirmation of the statement, it must be remembered that both were scholars and held no ordinary positions in the world of letters.

Von Oberg afterwards erected and presided over a Lodge in the Prince's castle of Rheinsberg and, when he left for Hamburg in 1739, Frederick himself assumed the chair. At his father's death‑May 31, 174o‑Frederick openly ac knowledged himself as a Mason; and‑June 2o, 174o‑presided over a Lodge in the Royal Palace of Charlottenburg, with Bielfeld and Jordan as his Wardens. On that occasion the following candidates were initiated by the King in person :‑his two brothers, August Wilhelm and Heinrich Wilhelm ; his brother‑in‑law, Karl, 1`Iargrave of Brandenburg‑Onolzbach ; and the Duke of Holstein‑Beck. At a subsequent date he initiated the Margrave of Brandenburg‑Baireuth. This Lodge was called the " Royal Lodge," but ceased to work about 1744, when the outbreak of war diverted Frederick's attention to other matters.

Immediately after his accession Frederick empowered Jordan, the secretary of his Lodge, to erect a Lodge in Berlin for the convenience of the numerous Masons there resident. Its first meeting was held September 13, 1740 and it took the name of the Three Globes. This Lodge, which became the Grand Lodge of the same name, was, therefore, founded simply on the King's authority, who, from the very first, assumed all the privileges of a Grand Master in his own dominions. He continued to bear the title, even though, during the Seven Years' War and the heavy duties of his government, he was prevented from attending to his Masonic calls.

The names of some of the affiliates and initiates of the Lodge during its first year of existence are of interest in the history of Freemasonry in Germany. For instance, Baron Schmettau, already mentioned in connexion with Scots Masonry; Bielfeld, secretary to the Prussian Embassy at London, an honoured visitor of our Grand Lodge, March icy, 1741, who, July 21, 1741, was able to assure the Three Globes that England readily looked upon the King as the natural Grand Master in his dominions, which was, of course, equivalent to acknowledging the regularity of the Three Globes Constitution ; the Marquis de Gentils, who, June 27, 1742, styled himself English Senior Grand Warden pro tempore and helped to found the Union Lodge at Frankfort ; and Ch. Sarry, who, on December 6, 1737, had presided over the first Hamburg Lodge as Provincial Grand Master for Prussia and Brandenburg, where, at that time, no Lodge existed. Other notable members were Prince William, the Duke of Holstein‑Beck, the Margrave Karl of Brandenburg, Count Waldburg (also a visitor at the Grand Lodge of England, March icg, 1741) and Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick‑Bevern, subsequently known as Duke of Brunswick‑L6neburg‑Wolfenbuttel, initiated December 2i, 1740.

The first code of By‑laws was drawn up and accepted November 9, 1740. In October a Deputation from the Lodge initiated Karl Frederick, Duke of SaxeMeiningen and the Three Globes issued its first Warrant of Constitution to a Lodge, the Three Compasses, in that Prince's chief city.

Findel says (p. 244) that the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes imitated the example set by the Grand Lodge of England and organized a Steward Lodge, but, in Germany, the task of that Lodge was to manage the financial affairs of the juris diction. This caused great luxury to be displayed at their festivals, exhausted the treasury and became an inducement to members to join, but who did not prove a desirable acquisition. To prevent persons unlawfully constituted from sharing in the business of the Lodges, a new sign was adopted and communicated to the Lodges. Hamburg and Frankfort agreed to do the same and the latter, as an extra precautionary measure, gave to its members, by way of certificate, an impression of the seal of Grand Lodge, on the reverse of which were recorded the names of the F. Iv‑8 Master and Wardens. But neither this arrangement, nor another proposition made by von Heinitz in Brunswick in 1762, that all regularly constituted Lodges should enter correspondence, ever met with general approbation.

In 1742, Schmettau having made several Scots Masters, these formed themselves into a Scots Lodge, Union, November 30, 1742. Although the membership of this Lodge was restricted to Masons of the Three Globes, it never attempted, like the French Scots Master Lodges, to exercise any control over the Craft.

From 1742 to 1744 six Warrants of Constitution were granted, some of which were for localities beyond the confines of Prussia. It was, therefore, only natural that‑June 24, 1744‑the Lodge should assume the title of Grand Royal Mother Lodge of the Three Globes. It did not cease, however, on that account to continue working as a private Lodge. Frederick the Great was nominally Grand Master, though, as seen, he could not, for want of time, give much attention to Masonic matters and, in September 1747, the Duke of Holstein‑Beck, Governor of Berlin, was elected Vice or Deputy Grand Master‑a step designed to strengthen the Lodge, which had meanwhile somewhat deteriorated. These offices, however, were rather ornamental than useful, as the real power in the Lodge was still vested in the Master. The changes in that office need not be tabulated, but it may be mentioned that von Printzen‑initiated March 18, 1748‑who was elected Master of the Lodge, May 5, 1749, held the post until June 5, 17 and became the foremost figure in its early annals.

December 9, 1754, a second Lodge was constituted at Berlin, under the name of La Petite Concorde, but with very limited powers. It soon felt the inconvenience of this arrangement and took advantage of some irregularities in the election of the officers of the Mother Lodge‑May 28, 175 5‑to protest and declare itself independent. On the death of Holstein‑Beck, Sarry‑in May 1755‑made preparations for nominating von Rammelsberg as Vice Grand Master and he was duly elected. Von Rammelsberg proved to be a very efficient ruler, notwithstanding the protest and withdrawal of La Petite Concorde. Lord James Keith, who was then Governor of Berlin, and claimed to be Deputy Grand Master of all English Lodges in North Germany, interfered to prevent the Concord being closed by force, and promised it an English Constitution. Although the Mother‑Lodge had meanwhile warranted, in 1746, five and, in 1751, two Lodges, matters were far from satisfactory and, in May 1757, von Printzen was once more called to the direction of affairs. His first efforts to restore peace between the Three Globes and the Concord were, however, only partially successful. In 1758 the latter also erected for itself a Scots Lodge, under the name of Harmony.

In the same year Gabriel de Lernais, a French prisoner of war, appears upon the scene. The Three Globes granted him a Warrant for a French Lodge, without the right of initiating. This Lodge Fidelity died out after the exchange of prisoners. De Lernais also induced von Printzen to give his powerful support to the Clermont Degrees and, circa 1758, these two erected a Chapter‑Knights of Jerusalemwhich‑June (or July) 19, 176o‑assumed the title of Premier Grand Chapter of FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 115 Clermont in Germany, with von Printzen as Chief. This Chapter exercised no supremacy over the Lodges : it was and remained, until the advent of the Strict Observance, outside the real work of the Craft. Rosa, as already related, somewhat modified the ritual and established subordinate Chapters in many cities.

Besides four other Lodges, the Three Globes warranted‑August 10, 1760the Berlin Lodge of the Three Doves, afterwards the Grand Lodge Royal York. This Lodge consisted originally entirely of French Brethren, but, in 1761, it obtained permission to include Germans in its membership, when it changed its name to Friendship. On the motion of von Printzen they expressed their willingness to join in with the two other Lodges in Berlin to form an independent Grand Lodge. Ultimately, as will be seen, it became the Grand Lodge Royal York of Friendship.

In 1763, however, a member of the Lodge Friendship (the new name of the Three Doves) was excluded by the Tribunal for six months for a Masonic offence. This proceeding caused so much friction that the Grand Master and officers of the Tribunal resigned; and, as no fresh ones were elected, the Tribunal ceased to exist. Von Printzen, however, continued for years to be referred to as Grand Master, probably out of respect for his character. In 1762 and 1763 eight new Lodges were constituted‑the last sign of activity for some years, for the time was now fast approaching when the Three Globes and its daughters were to merge into the system of the Strict Observance.

It will be remembered that in 1763 Schubart was named Deputy Grand Master and, superseding Rosa in his missionary efforts, was appointed by von Hund his Delegate‑General in November of that year. In 1764 he returned to Berlin to convert the Fraternity there and, finally, so far succeeded that the new Statutes accepted by the Three Globes‑November 2o, 1764‑were fashioned on the lines of the Strict Observance. His success was all the easier because Rosa's Clermont Chapters had to a certain extent prepared the way. On January 13, 1765, von Hund granted a warrant to Kruger to open a Strict Observance Lodge in Berlin. In 1765, also, Lodge Friendship acquired an English patent and separated from the Three Globes, ultimately developing, as stated, into the Grand Lodge‑Royal York of Friendship.

At this period Zinnendorff appears upon the scene. He was already a member of von Printzen's Jerusalem Chapter and, in June 1765, was elected Master of the Three Globes. On August 24, 1764, he signed the Act of Strict Observance at Halle, was knighted by von Hund on October 3 and made Prefect of Templin (i.e. Berlin) on the 6th, with Kruger as second in command. The two together carried the Berlin Lodges with them and‑January 13,1766‑von Hund constituted the Three Globes a Scots or Directoral Lodge, with power to warrant Strict Observance Lodges. The daughter Lodges all naturally went over to the new system, with the exception of the Royal York, which had placed itself under the Grand Lodge of England. Zinnendorff, however, made himself enemies, acted in a very arbitrary manner, used the Lodge funds‑it is averred‑for his own purposes and 116 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE was, therefore, not re‑elected at the expiration of his year of office. He was succeeded in June 1766 by Kruger, who, in July, procured the acceptance of the Strict Observance Ritual and the formal renunciation by the Lodge‑August 9‑of the Clermont Degrees.

On November 16, 1766, Zinnendorff formally notified to von Hund his renunciation of the Strict Observance and, six months later‑May 6, 1767‑all things being in readiness for the foundation of his own Rite, he resigned member ship of the Three Globes. The members of that Lodge were by no means agreed as to their future proceedings for, in the same year (1767), another notable member, Koppen, also seceded and founded a Rite‑that of African Architectswhich only came to an end at his death in 1797.

In 1769 Kohler became Master of the Three Globes and Kruger, Head Scots Master (the Scots Lodges of the Strict Observance controlled those of the Craft) and, in accordance with the rules of the Templar system, both offices were declared permanent.

In the following year‑February z4‑the Mother‑Lodge constituted the Berlin Lodge of the Flaming Star, of which C. A. Marschall von Bieberstein was Master. One relative, C. G. Marschall‑von Hund's predecessor‑founded the Naumburg Lodge; another, H. W. von Marschall, was appointed by Lord Darnley, in 1737, Provincial Grand Master for Upper Saxony. Other members of this family were also prominent Masons. This Lodge, with the Three Globes and the Concord, now formed one body, as it were, under the Scots Lodge‑so much so, that, in 1787, the Berlin Masons did not know to which Lodge they belonged and steps had to be taken to remedy the confusion.

November 16, 1770, the Crown Prince‑afterwards Frederick William IIwrote to the Lodge of the Strict Observance‑i.e. the Three Globes‑assuring it of his protection.

In 177z Kruger and Wollner attended the Kohlo Convent, at which the Strict Observance system was reorganized. Each national division of the Order acquired a Grand Lodge to rule the Craft; the National Grand Master and the Head Master of the Scots Lodge acting together formed the Scots Directory, ruling all Degrees, including the 4th ; the Supreme Grand Master, i.e. Duke Ferdinand, presided over all the separate Directories ; the higher or knightly Degrees were subject to the Provincial Grand Master, von Hund. Prince Frederick Augustus of Brunswick (nephew of Ferdinand) was made National Grand Master of Prussia; and the Three Globes, in accordance with the new arrangements, took the title of Grand National Mother‑Lodge of the Prussian States, which it retained.

In 1773 the former Grand Master, von Printzen, died; and, in the following year, the Lodge Frederick of the Three Seraphim was constituted in Berlin. May z, 1775, Kruger resigned and the National Grand Master, Prince Frederick Augustus, appointed as Head Scots Master, Wollner, who was imbued with the alchemical and mystical mania of the day. In 1775 two new Lodges (one Silence, in Berlin) and, in 1776, two others, were constituted. This brings us to the date of von Hund's death (November 18, 1776) and to a new period in the history of this Grand Lodge.

Many causes combined to produce dissatisfaction with the Rite of the Strict Observance about this time. Wollner himself had become allied with the New or Gold Rosicrucians and naturally influenced his entourage ; the idea of a Templar restoration had ceased to attract or to retain favour ; the object of the Duke of Sudermania in desiring to succeed von Hund was looked upon with suspicion; the position of the Mother‑Lodge was, after all, only a secondary one. The consequence was, that no Deputies were sent from Berlin to the Convent at Wolfenbiittel in 1777 and‑July 5, 1779‑it was resolved in Grand Lodge to cease working the High Degrees, but not formally to dissociate the Lodges of the jurisdiction from the Strict Observance. The Grand Master, Prince Frederick Augustus, informed the subordinate Lodges of this resolution by a circularApril 7, 178o‑which contained very palpable allusions to a Hermetic Society and j announced the formation of a 5th Degree, immediately succeeding the Scots Masters, the very existence of which was to be kept secret from all those not admitted to it. The four " at present " imperfect lower Degrees were to be retained till the Unknown Superiors should send them corrected rituals. Theden was to be the only one entitled to confer this 5th Degree, but Wollner, as Head Scots Master, was to direct the whole system, etc. From that moment, although it would be incorrect to describe the Three Globes system as a Rosicrucian one, inasmuch as the hermetic leaders at no time controlled whole Lodges, yet it may safely be averred that the Rosicrucian Degrees were extensively practised by a very large number of individual Masons selected from these Lodges and that the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes became the centre of the Rosicrucian Fraternity. From 1777 to 1781 five new Lodges were warranted, one each year.

In 178o‑June z6‑a first step towards a representative system was made by a resolution conferring honorary membership of Grand Lodge on all acting Masters of subordinate Lodges.

The meeting of the Wilhelmsbad Convent‑and with it the practical subversion of the Strict Observance‑took place in 1782. This furnished an opportunity for the Three Globes to avow its principles. In a circular of November 11, 1783, it declared its independence of all superior authority, but was willing to honour Duke Ferdinand, as before, in the capacity of Grand Master; it refused, however, to conform to the rectified Templar system, but offered to recognize as legitimate all Masons of every system as far as concerned the first three Degrees (always excepting the Illuminati) and counselled all Grand Lodges to follow its example. Not a word, however, did the circular contain of their own special vanity, the Hermetic Degrees.

The next few years present little of importance. In 1783 three Lodges were warranted ; in 1784 Theden became Master of the Three Globes ; and, in 1785, Bieberstein was elected Scots Head Master. In 1786, however, two important events occurred‑Frederick the Great died and the unknown Rosicrucian Fathers ordered a general Silanum, so that the two prominent disciples of this folly, Wollner and his pupil, Frederick William II, had to content themselves with prosecuting their researches unaided ; and, for the next few years, the Lodges worked only the original three Degrees, with a Scots Degree superadded. In 1787 one new Lodge was warranted and, in 1788, the first list was published, showing 16 active subordinate Lodges, with 763 members. 1790 saw the end of the mutual interdiction between the Lodges under the Three Globes and the National (or Zinnendorff) Grand Lodge, which was succeeded by a pact of tolerance and amity. In 1791, in order to remedy the evil caused by the continual absence from Berlin of the Grand Master Prince Frederick Augustus of Brunswick, Wollner was elected his Deputy. Wollner, however, was now a Minister of State and his scanty leisure was devoted to alchemical studies, so that not much advantage accrued from this step. More to the purpose was the appointment of a Commission‑January 4, 1794‑to formulate a Grand Lodge Constitution and ordinances and a resolution to re‑elect all officers yearly, thus effacing the last reminiscence of the Strict Observance system. In 1796 Theden resigned on account of his advanced age and Wolner was elected Master of the Three Globes.

In the same year‑February 9‑Frederick William II granted the Grand Lodge his special protection, together with all the privileges of a corporate body. The greater part of the ensuing year was taken up in devising a scheme for a govern ing body and in formulating Constitutions for the entire system; but the work was, at length, concluded November 22, 1797. The Grand Master and Deputy Grand Master were deprived of all authority and became mere figureheads to whom a certain amount of outward honour and deference was shown, but who were not even required to sign Warrants, which were to be issued by the Grand National Mother‑Lodge. The Grand Lodge became the legislative body and was composed of 36 active members chosen from the Berlin Lodges. Seven of these formed a species of acting committee, with the style of a Scots Directory, the president taking the name of Head Scots Master. This Directory represented the Lodge before the law and was entrusted with the administration of affairs ; all resolutions of the Grand Lodge required its ratification and all its acts required the assent of the Grand Lodge. To a certain extent its president even took precedence of the corresponding dignitary of the Grand Lodge. Its members were to be Scots Masons. In matters of dogma it took the name of Inner Orient and was entrusted with the preservation of the purity of ritual, etc. As regards ritual, only three Degrees were acknowledged. Four higher steps were, indeed, instituted‑the first being derived from the old Scots Lodge‑‑and in these the history of the Craft, the dogmas of Freemasonry and the arcana of the High Degrees were unfolded. They were not, however, Degrees, although membership of each was preceded by a ceremony and they exercised no influence over the Lodges ; they more nearly approached close literary societies and were attached to individual Lodges provided the consent of the Master could be obtained and each particular Lodge of this class was considered as a branch of the Berlin Lodge. The arrangement in fact was not unlike the Hamburg Engbund. It will be observed that the Provincial Lodges had no share in the government of the Craft.

In 1798‑October 2o‑there appeared a royal edict suppressing all secret societies. The three Grand Lodges in Berlin, however, with Lodges holding under them, were expressly exempted from its provisions ; but Lodges erected in Prussia by other Grand Lodges were declared illegitimate. The names of all members were to be handed to the police authorities yearly. The Grand Master and the Deputy Grand Master were asked whether their names should also be cited and whether they would accept the accompanying responsibility. They declined and resigned their posts in February 1799.

During the ten years 1788‑98 six Lodges were warranted and the number of active Lodges increased to 2o, with a total membership of 941.

In 1799‑March 7‑it was determined not to elect any special National Grand Master, but to consider the Master of the Three Globes as such pro tem. Zollner, therefore, thenceforth took the title of Grand Master. June z4‑New Statutes were agreed to : these must not be confounded with the Constitutions. All German Grand Lodges make a distinction between the two, although it is at times somewhat difficult to explain the difference. In i8oi‑February 1o‑the special Constitutions of the Inner Orient received final approbation ; and, November i, 1804, the Constitutions were revised ; the Grand Lodge to consist of 11 Grand Officers and 36 active members.

In 1804‑September i2‑Grand Master Zollner died and was succeeded by Guionneau. A Past Grand Master, Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, died November 8, 1805.

In October 1 806 the French troops entered Berlin and the Lodges there under the Three Globes system were ordered to suspend work. The Committees of the Grand Lodge continued, however, to meet and transact all necessary business. It was even during this interregnum, that the first steps towards a closer union of the three Berlin Grand Lodges were taken, for, on December 12, 1807, a Committee was instituted consisting of four Deputies of each Grand Lodge, to consider and arrange matters of common interest and profit. This led to the Masonic Union of the Three Grand Lodges of Berlin‑January 6, 18io‑which was dissolved in 1823. Unfortunately one of the first acts of this Committee‑April z, 1808‑was to confirm the already existing ordinance that a Jew could not be initiated, nor could a Jew already made a Mason elsewhere be affiliated. His right to visit was left undecided. This Jewish question was now beginning to make its importance felt.

The Berlin Lodges resumed work December 16, 1808. During the preceding ten years 4o Lodges had been added to the roll but, owing to a few dropping out, the total of active Lodges had only risen from 20 to 5 5, with a membership of 3,694, or an average of 67 per Lodge as compared with 47 in 1798.

The formation of the Grand Lodge of Saxony, at Dresden, in 1811, withdrew the Lodge at Bautzen from the jurisdiction of Berlin. That Grand Lodge was, however, liberal enough to permit former Lodges to retain their peculiar rituals, thus it came about that in 18 i z a pact was entered into between the Three Globes and Dresden, by virtue of which that Lodge remained under Berlin in all matters regarding ritual and work but, otherwise, passed under the jurisdiction of Dresden.

In 18 i z‑November z6‑the Constitutions underwent their septennial revision, the chief alterations being that the Provincial Lodges were granted a sham representation and allowed to appoint a Berlin member of the Grand Lodge as their proxy, which was an unsatisfactory concession to a demand for a seat in that body for every Master of a Lodge; that the number of members of Grand Lodge might be raised in consequence of this demand for representation as high as 7 by 7, i.e. 49 ; that the membership was never to be less than 5 by 5, or 25 ; and that 3 by 3, or 9, formed a quorum of the Grand Lodge.

1817 is the year given by O'Etzel for the initiation by a Deputation from the Three Globes of Prince Frederick, second son of the King of Holland and subsequent Grand Master of the Netherlands.

In the last ten years 39 Lodges had been added to the roll, but a great many must have become extinct, since from 5 5 active Lodges in i 808, the total had only risen to 74 in 1818, with 6,545 members, an average of 88‑9 per Lodge.

In 1821 the Czar's edict closing the Polish Lodges, caused a loss of several Lodges to Berlin ; and the revision of the Statutes, in 18 z5, once more enforced the regulation that a Jew could neither be initiated, affiliated, nor received as a visitor. It may also be observed, that in 1821, O'Etzel, the subsequent Grand Master, joined Lodge Concord and was elected a member of the Grand Lodge in 1822.

From 1818 to 1828 fifteen Lodges had been constituted and the total number of active Lodges amounted to 87, with a membership of 6,842, or an average of 78 per Lodge‑somewhat less than before.

In 18zg the National Grand Master, Guionneau, died and was succeeded by Rosenstiel, who also dying‑March 18, 1832‑was followed by Poselger.

In 1838 Grand Master Proselger resigned on account of ill‑health and O'Etzel, who had entered the Directory in 1836, was elected in his stead. Proselger died shortly afterwards, February 9, 183 8. The periodical revision of the Constitutions produced no change of more than passing interest. In this year the Grand Lodge acquired, for ten Frederichsd'or, the apron and gavel of Frederick the Great. Since 1828 six new Lodges had been added to the roll. The total number, as against the 87 of 1828, was only 88, with 7,225 members, an average of 8z per Lodge. In 1839‑December z8‑there was formed a Grand Masters' Union of the three Berlin Grand Lodges and one of its first acts‑May zz, 1840‑was to initiate Prince William of Prussia, afterwards German Emperor.

In 1840‑September 13‑the Grand Lodge held its centenary festival, on which occasion it was presented by the Master of the Lodge Horus‑on the roll of the Royal York‑with the sword used at the initiation of Frederick the Great at Brunswick in 173 8 ; whereupon it was resolved, that the Master of Lodge Horus, although under another jurisdiction, be ex ofcio an honorary member of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes.

The revision of the Constitutions in 1843, raised the possible number of members of the Grand Lodge to 7 by 9, or 63 ; and the revised Statutes of 1841 once more excluded the Jews even from visiting‑the Grand Masters' Union making this ordinance incumbent on all three of the Prussian Grand Lodges in 1842. As a last resort H.R.H. the Protector was appealed to and‑April 26, 1843‑‑delivered himself to the same effect. In 1848 a Cologne Lodge affiliated a Jewish Brother and appointed him to office: the Lodge was erased.

O'Etzel resigned office in 1848 and was succeeded as Grand Master by Messerschmidt. In the preceding ten years, i z new Lodges had been warranted or revived. The total of active Lodges was 96, with 8,589 members‑an average of 89‑go, showing a steady increase both of Lodges and members.

A revision of the Constitutions being due in 1849, the Lodges were requested to vote with regard to the admission of Jews as visitors. Out of 71 Lodges which replied, 56 voted for and 15 against their admission. After this expression of opinion the Grand Lodge, nevertheless, only approved the resolution by icg to 16 votes. It called upon the Directory to say whether this was one of those resolutions which required to be passed by a two‑thirds majority. The Directory answered that it was a dogmatic question, requiring to be submitted to them as the Inner Orient and sided with the majority. The result was that‑July ii, 1849‑all Masons subject to a Grand Lodge recognized by the Three Globes were declared admissible as visitors, thus the first step towards placing Jewish on a level with Christian Masons was at last conceded. The quorum of the Grand Lodge was raised from nine to one‑third of its active members.

On Christmas Day, 1850, O'Etzel‑or, rather, von Etzel, died, the latter prefix having been granted to him by Royal decree in 1846.

Since 1848 only four new Lodges had been warranted and some of the Lodges in Hanover had been forced to join the Grand Lodge of that country at King George's desire. The total number of active Lodges in 18 5 8 was 94, with 9,744 members‑an average of 104 members per Lodge.

In 1861 E. E. Wendt, English Grand Secretary for German Correspondence, succeeded in establishing a correspondence between the Three Globes and the English Grand Lodge and, at length, in 1867, some approach to a representative system was inaugurated. At the Annual Conference in May, at which proposed alterations of the Statutes were usually discussed, the Masters of Provincial Lodges were for the first time invited to attend and did so to the number of 20.

In 1868‑February 2o‑it was resolved to present every initiate with a copy of O'Etzel's History of the Three Globes, a liberal and praiseworthy arrangement.

In May‑7th and 8th‑the question, whether Jewish Masons were to be admitted, was again raised. Their affiliation or initiation was rejected by 54 votes to zo ; but it was resolved to receive them, if actual subscribing members of a regular Lodge, as permanent visitors (a position much resembling honorary membership in England) by 54 votes to 24.

In this year the total number of active Lodges was io6, with a membership of 11,271, or an average of io6 per Lodge, the Warrants granted in the previous ten years being 14.

In 1869 representatives were for the first time exchanged with England and in the May Conference the Jewish question was adjourned as inopportune. In 1873 a Lodge was warranted at Shanghai. This was the only German Lodge in foreign parts, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Hamburg.

At the periodical revision of the Constitutions in 1873, the Provinces made a great effort to secure a better representation in Grand Lodge. They obtained not all they wanted‑but a great concession. It was resolved‑April i g‑that no law or statute should be made or amended except at the May Conferences, in which every Master was entitled to a vote. As, however, Grand Lodge was allowed to attend in full force, the Masters still found themselves, as a rule, much out‑numbered, whilst a majority of two‑thirds was requisite to carry a new law or an amendment to an old one. The Jewish question was again fought out, but left in statu quo.

In 1873, on the occasion of completing twenty‑five years as Grand Master, Messerschmidt resigned, on account of old age and was succeeded by von Etzel, the son of O'Etzel, Messerschmidt's immediate predecessor.

In 1874 the Lodges had voted on the Jewish question as a guide to the Grand Lodge‑66 Lodges for their admission, 44 against; but of the individual members actually voting there was a majority Of 7 against. At the May Conference there were present 47 Grand Lodge members and 28 Masters and the voting was 45 to 3o‑adversely to the Jews. In 1876 the majority was at‑last in their favour, but the necessary two‑thirds majority was not attained. The more enlightened Masons then tried to secure their ends by a reorganization of the legislative body, andMay 25, 1878‑it was resolved that thenceforth not all the members of Grand Lodge should take part in the May Conferences, but only 25‑that is, 5 from each Berlin Lodge‑the Provincial Masons thus standing a better chance of procuring a two‑thirds majority.

IV. The National Grand Lodge of all German Freemasons at Berlin

The above title of this Grand Lodge was never justified. It is a barefaced usurpation. The Lodge was never national in the way claimed, as embracing all Germany, even at its birth was not so in the more restricted sense as applying to Prussia, where the National Grand Mother‑Lodge of the Three Globes already existed. That it assumed to be the only legal Grand Lodge in Germany, that it posed as infallible, the only true exponent of Freemasonry with the sole exception of Sweden, was, however, only in perfect keeping with the imperious temper of its founder. From its inception the Lodge was dictatorial and oppressive towards its own daughters ; scornful, even impertinent towards its equals ; boastful of its own FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 123 superior light, yet persistently shrouding itself in darkness ; founded by a violation of all Masonic legality, yet a stickler for legal forms when they suited its own convenience; revolutionary at its birth and rigidly conservative. Nevertheless this Grand Lodge was the second largest in Germany and produced Masons of the highest culture, whose very names must always remain an honour to the Fraternity. Zinnendorff and his immediate friends and successors knew their own minds at a time when their German Brethren were vacillating between Clermont Degrees, Strict Observance Rites, Rosicrucianism, et hoc genus omne and, so knowing, carried out their views astutely, ruthlessly and persistently‑with the success that usually attends all well‑directed efforts. No official history of this Grand Lodge has ever been published; its partisans spoke with awe of its ancient documents and hid them from the gaze of the student. Like holy relics they were only accessible to devout believers ; nay, even a complete.Book of Constitutions has never been placed within reach of the public ; and Masters, in order to govern their Lodges, were constrained to gather together the decisions pronounced at various times by the Grand Lodge, each thus forming for himself a species of digest of the common law as settled by decided cases. Such a collection has been made in Vol. XXVI of the Latomia but many gaps still remain to be filled up.

The early annals of this Grand Lodge are indissolubly connected with Zinnendorff, one of the most remarkable, perhaps, unscrupulous Masons of whom there is any record. Ellenberger was his patronymic and he was born August 11, 1731, at Halle ; but, being adopted by his mother's brother, took his uncle's name of Zinnendorff. He followed the medical profession and rose to be the chief of that department in the Prussian army, retiring in 1779. His initiation took place at Halle, March 13, 1757. When he joined a Berlin Lodge, or even which Lodge it was, are alike unknown; but he was one of the early members of the Berlin Chapter of Jerusalem. When Schubart, the Deputy Grand Master of the Three Globes, was, in November 1763, won over by von Hund, Schubart's first step was to despatch a letter in von Hund's interest to the Three Globes, which was to be opened in the presence of 24 Brethren, who were specified. On its arrival, Zinnendorff and three others being with von Printzen, the Grand Master Zinnendorff persuaded them to open the letter then and there ; and, to extenuate their fault as an excess of zeal, Schubart, being asked for more light, insisted upon the letter being shown to the others when, as a result, Zinnendorff and Kruger were selected to visit von Hund. Probably from selfish motives, the former of these emissaries appeared alone, saying that the latter was ill, but this was afterwards denied by Kruger, who ultimately arrived on the scene. Zinnendorff signed the act of Strict Observance (or Unquestioning Obedience), August z4, 1764, was knighted by von Hund October 30 and made Prefect of Templin, i.e. Berlin, on the 6th.

In June, 1765, Zinnendorff was elected Grand Master of the Three Globes. possibly because the Lodge was already tending towards the Strict Observance system, of which he was the resident chief in Berlin. Scarcely was he installed before complaints arose of his arbitrary proceedings and haughty independence, not only from his Masonic, but also from his Templar subjects. Almost his first act was to despatch his friend Baumann to Stockholm in order to obtain information there respecting the Swedish Rite. The requisite funds were taken from the treasury of the Three Globes, though the Lodge was not consulted either with regard to the mission or the appropriation of its money‑and, worst of all, Zinnendorff kept for his own use the information so acquired, at a cost to the Lodge for travelling expenses of i,ioo thalers. Baumann obtained from Dr. Eckleff not only the Rituals of the Swedish High Degrees, but a Warrant of Constitution. ; and Findel states that the latter was z2o ducats in pocket by the transaction. (Findel, 4th ed., p. 419. For the particulars concerning Zinnendorff see Allegemeines Handbucb.) It is a somewhat important point to decide whether Eckleff was at this time Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Sweden, or merely, as the Swedish Grand Lodge subsequently affirmed, the Head‑Master of the Scots Chapter at Stockholm. As seen already, the Grand Lodge of Sweden was formed in 1759 and, on December 7, 1762, the King assumed the Protectorate, so that the probability is that he was virtually its Grand Master. But, even if Eckleff were at the time Grand Master, it is obvious that, if he acted in the matter without the knowledge of Grand Lodge, the step was equally ultra vines. Both these grounds were alleged when, in 1777, Sweden repudiated Zinnendorff ; but, on the other hand, it should be mentioned that, as late as 1776, the Swedish authorities were in close and fraternal correspondence with him and those intimate relations must be held to have condoned any irregularities in the initial stages.

In 1766 the Berlin Templars complained strongly of the impossibility of obtaining any financial statements from Zinnendorff, but Kruger, who was sent by them on a mission to von Hund, advised the Provincial Grand Master to treat him delicately, because he might become dangerous and create scandal‑another testimony to the character of the man.

In June 1766 Zinnendorff was not re‑elected Grand Master of the Three Globes but, of course, retained his office as Prefect of Templin (which was not elective) and, on August 9, the Three Globes formally joined von Hund's system. The financial dispute between Zinnendorffand the Three Globes now assumed a threatening aspect, so Schubart and Bode were deputed to arrange matters in July 1766. Zinnendorff, being called to account, made up a statement on the spur of the moment showing that, even admitting for argument's sake the debt of i,ioo thalers, there still remained 8oo thalers owing to him. In the interests of peace and quietness it was at length decided to let the matter drop on both sides. On November 16, 1766, Zinnendorff wrote a formal letter to von Hund renouncing the Strict Observance ; and, on May 6, 1767, he resigned the Three Globes. By the Three Globes, however, as well as by the Provincial Chapter of von Hund, a sentence of expulsion was passed upon him and, from that moment, he became the bitter and confirmed enemy of the Strict Observance system (von Etzel, Gescbicbte, p. 5 5).

In 1768, " by virtue of his inherent power," i.e. as a Scots Master, Zinnendorff erected his first Lodge on the Swedish system in Potsdam ; on August io, 1769, his second, the Three Golden Keys, in Berlin‑of which he became Master andNovember 3, ‑1769‑he instituted the Scots or St. Andrew's Lodge Indissoluble in Berlin. His conversion of two clandestine Swedish Lodges at Hamburg, in 1770, to his own Rite has already been noticed; in fact, such was his energy and activity, that, before Midsummer, 1770, he had already 12 Lodges at work.

Then began a series of attempts to obtain a patent enabling him to erect a Grand Lodge. He first of all applied to the High Chapter at Stockholm, but his request was refused on the ground that Sweden never constituted Lodges abroad, a state ment tending to invalidate Eckleff's proceedings. Undaunted, Zinnendorff called his 12 Lodges together and proclaimed the National Grand Lodge for all German Freemasons (Acta Latomorum, p. 96). According to his view none but those of his own Rite were entitled to be called Freemasons and, least of all, the Brethren under the Strict Observance. Apparently all Masters (in office) were members. As the election of these Masters, however, was invalid unless approved by the Grand Lodge, the system of representation was defective and a sham, because the Grand Lodge practically became self‑elective. Now, although Zinnendorff always professed the greatest contempt for the Grand Lodge of England as being deficient in true knowledge‑and possessing the shell only, of which he and the Swedish Masons held the kernel‑yet his advances meeting with no encouragement from Sweden, he made application to London‑March 29, 1771‑requesting recognition as a Grand Lodge, partly on the ground of possessing superior Degrees and partly from the circumstance of his holding a Swedish patent. The petition, however, failed to elicit any response (Findel, p. 422).

Upon this followed the constitution of a second Berlin Lodge, The Golden Ship and the election of Martin Kronke as Grand Master with Zinnendorff as Deputy Grand Master.

On October 29, 1771, he renewed his request and, on this occasion, to De Vignolles as Provincial Grand Master for foreign Lodges. But De Vignolles, at least, understood the course affairs had taken and answered that he could not even acknowledge him as a Brother until he had proof that he was received in a legitimate Lodge. The only legitimate Lodge in Berlin was the Royal York; the Three Globes had never been warranted by England; was now a Strict Observance Lodge and all such were clandestine. That beyond this it would be most unseemly of England to subordinate such personages as the Duke of Brunswick (Grand Master of Brunswick in 1770, who had already joined the Strict Observance) and other Provincial Grand Masters to unknown men like Zinnendorff and Kronke (Findel, p. 422 and Allgemeines Handbucb, s.v. Zinnendorff). Zinnendorff's efforts were therefore turned to procuring a show of regularity‑and a prince as Grand Master. Accordingly, on January 8, 1772, he applied to the Royal York Lodge for permission to use their rooms for an initiation and invited that Lodge to be present on the loth. This was done, a sheet of paper was clandestinely inserted in the Minute‑book of Royal York, the proceedings taken down, signed by the Royal York members, the sheet secretly abstracted and forwarded to England, in order 126 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE to prove that Zinnendorff and his friends were acknowledged as regular Masons by a properly constituted English Lodge (Hauptmomente der Gescbicbte der Grossen Loge von Preussen Royal York fur Freundscbaft, p. icy).

On August i i following he further induced the Landgrave Louis of Hesse Darmstadt to accept the office of Grand Master and negotiations were resumed with England; this time with Grand Secretary Heseltine and, in spite of De Vignolles, who, writing to Du Bois (Grand Secretary, Netherlands) in Holland, stated that matters were arranged behind his back and accused Heseltine of receiving a ú5o bribe (Allgemeines Handbucb, loc. cit.). The following excerpt from the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England‑April 23, 1773‑may possibly serve to explain De Vignolles's mistake and clear the Grand Secretary from an odious charge:" Bro. Charles Hanbury, of Hamburg, Esq., attended the Grand Lodge and, on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Germany, situated at Berlin, paid in the sum of ú50 towards the fund for building a Hall and received the thanks of the Grand Lodge thereupon."‑But although Heseltine personally could not have benefited by this, yet the transaction does bear the appearance of at least a propitiatory gift to the Grand Lodge. The donation was made in April and the contract with Zinnendorff in the following October and November at Berlin and London respectively. In the same year a third Berlin Lodge‑Pegasus‑was warranted and the total of subordinate Lodges had risen to 18.

Zinnendorff's great argument, of course, was that the Strict Observance had strangled pure Freemasonry in Germany and that it was necessary to erect a powerful Grand Lodge as a counterpoise. That his own system was as great an innovation as any of the others he naturally concealed, as he did the fact that all he wanted was England's name to conjure with. In its lamentable ignorance the Grand Lodge of England fell into the trap‑De Vignolles appears to have been the only one of its officers au courant of passing events‑and, in consequence, acted very unjustly towards its faithful daughter the Provincial Grand Lodge for Frankfort.

On November ig, 1773, " the Grand Secretary (Heseltine) informed the Grand Lodge of England of a proposal for establishing a friendly union and correspondence with the Grand Lodge of Germany, held at Berlin, under the patronage of H.S.H. the Prince of Hesse and Darmstadt, which met with general approbation " (Constitutions, 1784, p. 305).

The compact with Zinnendorff (for the text see Findel, pp. 8zz‑4) was signed (on behalf of the Grand Lodge of England) November 30, 1773. As it was executed in Berlin on October zo, it is evident that the terms had already been settled by Zinnendorff and Heseltine prior to the latter's motion in Grand Lodge. 5~i and z confirm in their offices Prince Ferdinand at Brunswick and Gogel at Frankfort for their respective lifetimes, protect their districts and leave them free‑in the futureto make terms with the Grand Lodge of Germany. ~3 deposes various other Provincial Grand Masters (who had gone over to the Strict Observance), among whom was Jaenisch of Hamburg. 14 reserves Hanover as common ground for England and Berlin. By 55 Berlin is to contribute to the Charity according to its FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 127 increase of power, but never less than C25 per annum. 16 recognizes the German Grand Lodge as the only constituent power in Germany, always excepting Brunswick and Frankfort, these only for the term of the then existing personal patents. 17 forbids the Grand Lodge at Berlin to exercise its powers outside Germany. In clause 9 both parties bind themselves to combat all innovations in Masonry, especially the Strict Observance.

Zinnendorff had thus, although under false pretences, obtained his point and was constituted the sole Masonic authority in Germany, by the Mother Grand Lodge of the Craft and, on July 16, 1774, his own Grand Lodge obtained the pro tection of Frederick the Great (O'Etzel, p. 61). Prince Louis having served the end for which he was elected, was evidently treated with scant courtesy, for on September zo, 1774, the Landgrave resigned, alleging as his reason for so doing, that he was ignored in his own Grand Lodge (Allgemeines Handbucb, loc. cit.). Zinnendorff was elected Grand Master, but in the following year‑June 30, 1775made way for Duke Ernest II of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg. This high‑minded prince exerted all his efforts to heal the strife which raged between Zinnendorff's Lodges and the Strict Observance and, though he failed to accomplish a union, at least succeeded‑July 1776‑in effecting a pact of mutual recognition and tolerance. This, however, being at once broken by Zinnendorff, the Duke‑unable to endure the petty quarrels any longer‑resigned and was succeeded by Grand Master Golz (Findel, p. 4z5)‑December 21, 1776‑and by Dr. T. Mumssen in 1777 (Ibid., p. 429). Meanwhile the system had increased considerably; in Berlin alone Lodge Constancy was erected in 1775 ; Lodges Pilgrim, Golden Plough and Ram in 1776, making a total of no fewer than 7 Lodges in that city.

At this period began the negotiations between the Strict Observance and the Duke of Sudermania, threatening to end in the withdrawal of Sweden's tacit support of the National Grand Lodge. The Strict Observance Masons may at this time be said to have had only one formidable rival, viz. Zinnendorff, whose party enjoyed the great advantage of knowing their own minds, whereas Ferdinand and his friends did not. Such an opportunity of humiliating Zinnendorff could not be allowed to pass, but that able tactician, who probably saw the storm brewing, took measures to draw still closer the bonds between England and himself. In April 1777 he despatched his attached ally, Leonhardi, to London, who, in August 1779, obtained a Warrant to establish there the Pilgrim Lodge (Loge der Pilger), No. 516 (now No. z38), under a special dispensation to work in German and use their own ritual. Leonhardi was admitted to Grand Lodge‑February 7, 1781‑‑as the representative of the National Grand Lodge and took rank immediately after the Grand Officers. As seen already in 1782 Leonhardi frustrated the efforts made by the Frankfort Brethren through Pascha, subsequently to Gogel's death.

Meanwhile‑April z7, 1777‑the Swedish Grand Lodge, to Dlease the Strict Observance members, drew up a document signed by Karl of Sudermania and others, declaring that Eckleff's patent to Zinnendorff had been granted without the know ledge or consent of the Chapter and, therefore, being illegal, was thereby cancelled and annulled. (For the text see Paul, Annales des Eclectisben Freimaurerbundes, p. 225 .) In August the Swedish envoys, Oxenstierna and Plommenfeldt, arrived in Berlin, published this document and formally repudiated Zinnendorff and all his doings. Zinnendorff's circular to his Lodges announcing the foregoing proceedings is a masterpiece (Findel, pp. 426 et seq.) and, however one may disapprove of his conduct, it is quite impossible to withhold respect for his singular ability. He clearly places the Grand Lodge of Sweden in the wrong and demonstrates its inconsistency ; he also frankly avows, " moreover, we no longer require the help of the Swedish fraternity and can well spare their recognition." Nor was this an idle boast, for at that time (1778) eight years only after its birth, the National Grand Lodge ruled over 34 Lodges, with Provincial Grand Lodges in Austria, Silesia, Pomerania and Lower Saxony (Findel, p. 425).

In 178o‑June 24‑Zinnendorff replaced Mumssen as Grand Master and two years later‑June 6, 1782‑this eminently strong and masterful man was struck down by apoplexy, gavel in hand, at the very moment he was opening his Lodge of the Three Keys. His death produced no ill effect on his life's work. Able and resolute Brethren‑trained up in his school‑were ready to carry on the system where he left it. His immediate successor as Grand Master was Castillon ; and that the death of the founder had not destroyed the spirit implanted by him, may be gathered from the fact that, in 1783, the Three Globes having made advances by permitting the visits of Brethren of the Zinnendorff Rite, the National Grand Lodge replied by enacting‑October 30, 1783‑that only Lodges on the official list were to be considered legitimate and no communication was to be held with others (Latomia, vol. xxvi, 1868, p. 89).

One more heavy blow awaited the National Grand Lodge. That which De Vignolles had been unable to avert in 1773, Graefe was destined to undo in 1786. Count Graefe, a Brunswicker, was a captain in the English service in America. He had also been a Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Canada and returned to Brunswick in 1785, with an appointment as representative of the Grand Lodge of England at the National Grand Lodge, which, under the contract of November 30, 1773, was, of course, tantamount to representative for all Germany. On August 15, 1785, he wrote from Brunswick to the National Grand Lodge that, instead of harmony among the Fraternity in Germany, he found only discord and antipathy and called upon it to assist him in finding a remedy (Nettlebladt, p. 575). The National Grand Lodge‑October zo‑expressed a willingness to receive and aid him, but objected to the term Supreme Grand Lodge as applied to that at London and expected that he would only visit such German Lodges as were recognized by their own body. Graefe's eyes were soon opened to the state of affairs and, in the spring of 1786, he left for England. We find the results of his report in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, April 12, 1786, when the Grand Treasurer announced that the intolerant spirit of the Berlin Grand Lodge had evoked quarrels and scandals in Germany and that many Lodges looked to London for redress. It was resolved that the proceedings of the Berlin Grand Lodge tended to divide the Fraternity, to limit its progress, were in contravention of the treaty of 1773 and that steps should be taken to abrogate or alter that compact. As already seen, this was followed by the reinauguration of the Hamburg Provincial Grand Lodge under Graefe, by whom ‑August 17, 1786‑a. letter was despatched to Berlin inviting the presence of the National Grand Lodge at the ceremony. He added " that Berlin appeared to doubt the power of the Supreme Grand Lodge to make new arrangements, but he prayed them not to force him to take steps which old friendship had hitherto restrained " (Nettlebladt, p. 575). Castillon replied by excluding all Hamburg Lodges, even Graefe himself, upon which the latter issued a circular inveighing against the intolerance and injustice of the National Grand Lodge and declaring it to be his duty to pronounce that body and all its daughter Lodges illegitimate (Findel, p. 462). This action was approved in London, and Leonhardi, finding his presence no longer of any use, left that city‑April 9, 1787‑and betook himself to St. Petersburg (see Masonic News, London, October 26, 1929). In 1788‑April 23‑the Grand Lodge of England apprised the Berlin Lodge by letter of the abrogation of the treaty and‑November 26‑the Grand Master communicated to the Grand Lodge that he had acted on the resolution of April 12, 1786 and gave his reasons for so doing (O'Etzel, p. 91 and Grand Lodge Minutes, November 26, 1788). They are very cogent and show more knowledge than usual of Continental affairs, but are too long even for partial reproduction ; suffice it to say, that the Berlin Lodges, although deprived of all supremacy, continued to be recognized by the Grand Lodge of England as legitimate. But, in spite of all difficulties, the National Grand Lodge continued to prosper as before.

In 1789‑June 24‑the National Grand Lodge became wearied of its isolated position in Germany and passed a decree whereby the legality of all Lodges constituted by any recognized authority was acknowledged and mutual intercourse permitted, excepting, of course, in the case of Brethren of the Hebrew faith (Latomia, vol. xxvi, p. 91). This Grand Lodge has from the first been so intensely Christian that the Jewish question has never been even mooted and it is only recently that, yielding to outside pressure, Jews are allowed to be present in Lodges as occasional visitors.

Castillon resigned June 24, 179o and was succeeded as Grand Master by C. A. von Beulewitz. By the Royal Edict of October 2o, 1798, the National Grand Lodge was included as one of the three Grand Lodges of the Prussian States and, in 1799 ‑January i4‑Beulewitz died, whereupon Castillon was re‑elected Grand Master. From 1807‑9 the Grand Lodge was closed on account of the presence of the French Army of Occupation. In 1814‑January 27‑the Grand Master, Castillon, died; and, on December 27 ensuing, the previous Deputy Grand Master Joachim F. Neander von Petersheiden, was elected in his stead, who was followed in turn (1818) by J. H. O. von Schmidt.

Under Grand Master Schmidt the quarrel with Sweden was made up and a contract of mutual amity and support signed, April 6, 1819 (O'Etzel, p. 140). On this occasion the Grand Lodge of Sweden furnished complete copies of its F. IV‑‑9 Constitutions, Ritual, etc. ; and Nettlebladt, one of the foremost Mason's of Zinnendorff's Rite and an ardent defender of his master's probity, was at once set to work to revise the ritual of the National Grand Lodge (Findel, P. 516). Although Nettlebladt wrote a history of all the other Masonic systems and Rites (including the English)‑in which the ignorance and credulity of their votaries are pitilessly denounced‑unfortunately he has not favoured us with one of the National Grand Lodge. He always, however, maintains its infallibility in strong terms. A glance at the account of Freemasonry in Sweden will enable the reader to discern that at the time of the Eckleff transaction the Swedish Rite was still incomplete, as the cope‑stone of the highest Degrees had not been placed on the structure. In consequence the National Lodge had always been deficient of two Degrees and knew nothing of a Vicarius Salomonis. These defects were now remedied, the ceremonies throughout brought into unison and a Vicarius Salomonis, under the title of Master of the Order, elected. In i 8 z i we first hear of Palmie under that title and his election was probably in 1820. The Grand Master‑Schmidt‑took the title of First Assistant of the Master of the Order in 1821 and retained it so long as he remained Grand Master. A decree of October 2, 18zo (Latomia, vol. xxvi, p. 95), affirms that Masters of Lodges are elected for life, the triennial re‑election being a concession on the Master's part, not a right of the Lodge. The election of the Master, according to a decree of March 2, 1824 (Latomia, vol. xxvi, p. 95), was to take place by casting the names of all those eligible into an urn ; the youngest member drew a name, its owner had to leave the Lodge and his merits were canvassed. A ballot was then taken for him and required a two‑thirds' majority in his favour. If unfavourable, a second ticket was drawn and so on until the necessary majority was obtained. In 1825,‑December 5‑it was affirmed that the election must be approved by the Grand Lodge; in 183o‑December 2o‑that Lodges which became dormant ceded their property and funds to the Grand Lodge; and in 1837 ‑September i i‑that the " Master of the Order shall be eo ipso also Grand Master, but he may appoint his First Assistant to this office for life." In 1838 Count Henckel von Donnersmark was elected Grand Master in succession to Schmidt, but in 1841 the Master of the Order‑Palmie‑dying, he was elected in his room and, conformably with the above last‑quoted law, retained both offices until his death.

In 1843 Constitutions were printed, but were only issued to Masters of Lodgeswho were not allowed to show them, or even give extracts and they were kept under three keys held by different Officers of the Lodge. Keller, however, gives some excerpts (Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Deutschland, 18 5 9, pp. 14‑17) and Findel, PP. 423 et seq.), while the chief points are naturally more or less well known. The Inner Orient was composed of members of the highest Degrees only. It comprised, at its head, the Master of the Order, his two assistants, called Senior and Junior Architects and nine Officers. These twelve represented the twelve Apostles and, to a certain extent, the Master of the Order was the Vicar of Christ. Their functions were to supervise everything, but especially the ritual and dogma. The members FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 131 had the right to preside and vote in any Lodge and could even stop the proceedings. The Grand Lodge, with the Grand Master at its head, was divided into two bodies, the St. John's and the St. Andrew's Lodges, to rule respectively the Degrees of pure Freemasonry and the Scots Degrees. Grand Officers must at least be Scots Masters. The ritual is identical with that of Sweden and Denmark.

In 1849‑July 24‑Henekel von Donnersmark died and‑October 23‑K. F. von Selasinsky was elected Master of the Order.

On November 5, 1853, an event of great importance to Masons throughout Germany took place ; this was the initiation of Frederick William, Prince, afterwards Crown Prince, of Prussia. The ceremony took place in the palace of his father, the then heir to the throne, who presided in person, in the presence of the Grand Officers of the three Prussian Grand Lodges and in the name‑or under the banner‑of the National Grand Lodge, of which he became a member. The Master's gavel used on this occasion was that formerly belonging to Frederick the Great. The eighth and last of the Berlin Lodges under this system was constituted exactly two years afterwards‑November 5, 1855‑and named in his honour Frederick William of the Dawn.

In i 86o‑April 26‑Selasinsky died and Prince Frederick William of Prussia accepted the office of the Master of the Order on June 24 following.

Ten years later‑June 24, 187o‑the Grand Lodge celebrated its centenary, with the Prince in the chair. On this occasion a bombshell fell amongst the Brethren. The Grand Master alluded to the superior knowledge and greater purity of origin to which the National Grand Lodge had always laid claim‑also to its persistence in requiring that those statements should be taken as articles of faith, whilst the documents on which they rested were jealously preserved from the vulgar ken. He showed how impossible it was to resist libellous misrepresentations from outside, except by frankly producing proofs to the contrary and how the assumption of infallibility was not only untenable in the nineteenth century, but injurious to the best interests of the Grand Lodge; and concluded by calling upon all to aid him in ascertaining the historical truth of those supposed documents and traditions and freely to give up whatever should be found unsupported. An English translation of this address was read before the St. Mary's Lodge, No. 63, by Dr. E. E. Wendt, Grand Secretary for German Correspondence‑March 20, 1873‑and will be found in the Centennial History of that Lodge, 1883, by George Kelly and Wilmer Hollingworth. The excitement caused throughout the Lodges of the system was intense and two opposing parties‑of light and leading, of mystery and conservatism‑were at once formed. In 1873 twenty Brethren at Hanover were suspended for advocating reform, whilst in 1871 six Lodges attempted to found an historical and archxological union‑ a crime almost amounting to treason under this Grand Lodge. Schiffmann of Stettin received the prince's commission to undertake researches, but was denied access to the archives. Wearied by this persistent opposition, the Crown Prince at length‑March i, 1874‑resigned his office, he being the third Royal Grand Master of the National Grand Lodge who resigned the chair in disgust. In his place von Dachroden was elected, with Schiffmann as Senior Architect. The danger then became obvious that Schiffmann might at the next election be appointed Master of the Order and have the archives at his disposal. The Statutes were, therefore, arbitrarily altered and the election placed in the hands of the highest Degree only. It was also laid down that the Grand Master should live in Berlin. As Schiffmann held an ecclesiastical appointment in Stettin, he was thus rendered ineligible for election, but he nevertheless proceeded with his researches and made damaging discoveries. For this the Grand Lodge suspended him‑May I, 1876‑but his part was warmly taken by several Lodges and many, especially of other systems, made him an honorary member. Two months later‑July 1‑Schiffmann was expelled and several Lodges who supported him were erased ; others transferred their allegiance (Allgemeines Handbucb, vol. iv, 1879, s.v. Schwedischer System, also Findel, p. 568).

In 1872 G. A. von Ziegler had been appointed Grand Master and succeeded the Master of the Order‑Dachroden‑on his retirement, in both capacities. He in turn was followed by F. R. A. Neuland.

V. The Grand Lodge of Prussia, called Royal York of Friendship, at Berlin

On May 5, 176o, the Lodge of the Three Globes was informed that several resident French Masons‑Frederick the Great had established a large colony of that nationality in Berlin‑had petitioned for a Warrant to enable them to meet as a Lodge‑Joy and Peace‑to initiate Frenchmen only, offering to pay all their income into the funds of the Mother‑Lodge. In fact it was to be merely a distinctly French branch of the Three Globes. The request was granted and, in the same yearAugust io‑von Printzen constituted the Lodge under the name of the Three Doves. No reason is assigned why the title originally chosen was not adhered to. In 1761‑March 13‑the Mother‑Lodge took into consideration a request to enlarge the powers of its daughter, as it was found impossible to recruit the Lodge solely from Frenchmen and to carry it on without funds. The petition was acceded to and a fresh Warrant granted‑April 12‑whereby the Lodge became an inde pendent sister Lodge of the Three Globes. Its title had at this time been altered to Friendship of the Three Doves. In the same year it joined with the Three Globes and Concord in forming the Masonic Tribunal of which von Printzen was elected Grand Master.

From the character and composition of the Lodge it was inevitable that Degrees beyond that of Master Mason would be A ht. These appear as early as 1763 to have included some or all of the following :‑Elect of 9, of 15 and of Perpignan ; Red Scots Degree and St. Andrew's Scot; Knight of the East; Knight of the Eagle or Prince Sovereign Rose Croix : the members of this last and 7th Degree forming a Sublime Council, which ruled all the others. To vest these FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 133 Degrees, it is possible, with an enhanced authority, the Lodge procured‑March 6, 1764‑a Scots patent from the Scots Lodge Puritas, at Brunswick.

The work was, of course, conducted in French, but not without exceptions. Thus in 1764 there is an instance of a Lodge transacting its business in German, but the Minutes record a resolve not to do so again. A curious Minute occurs in 1765, when a member proposed for initiation, " somebody "‑having forgotten the candidate's name ! July 27, 1765, was an important date for this Lodge. On that day it initiated into the Craft H.R.H. Edward Augustus, Duke of York, the brother of George III and his companion, Colonel Henry St. John. On August z the Prince signified his acceptance of the title of patron of the Lodge and authorized it to assume the name of Royal York of Friendship. The Lodge then applied to the Grand Lodge of England for a patent and entrusted the petition to St. John. To this circumstance may be due the fact that the Lodge never joined the Strict Observance system but, on the contrary, always strenuously opposed it.

The next few years furnish two events which may be recorded. On September 6, 1765, the Lodge warranted its first daughter, at Rheims ; and in 1767June 6‑it initiated a Jew. This is remarkable because, in 1779, it had so far modified its views as to refuse admission to two English Masons because they were of the Hebrew persuasion. The latter position it retained until the revision of the Statutes in 187z ; but the Jewish question does not appear to have evoked the same strife in this Lodge as in the Three Globes and in the Eclectic Union.

In 1767‑June 24‑it received a Warrant from England as No. 417, successively altered by the closing up of numbers to 330, z6o and 2icg (1770, 1781, 1792) after 1813 it disappears from the English Lists.

Its next step was to apply for a patent as a Grand Lodge, but‑February 14, 1769‑De Vignolles wrote refusing the request as beyond England's power to grant ‑a Grand Lodge being the result of several Lodges combining for the purpose. He, however, authorized the Lodge to grant a three months' dispensation to Brethren to act as a new Lodge, during which time they were expected to apply for a Con‑, stitution from England (Nettlebladt, p. 6z4).

The Royal York formally seceded from the Three Globes in 1768. In 177z it sent a cypher to London in which to conduct its correspondence and the same year forwarded by this means the Statutes and Rituals of its Scots Degrees for approval. In the same year also it warranted a Lodge at Besan5on. Of this and the former Lodge at Rheims no further notices appear. In 1773 the Lodge gradually ceased to work in French and‑August 13‑constituted its first legitimate daughter at Cassel. This Lodge was registered in London, November icy, 1773, as No. 459.

Meanwhile the treaty‑so often cited‑had been contracted between Zinnendorff and the older or legitimate Grand Lodge in London and, by it, the Lodge Royal York came under the jurisdiction of the National Grand Lodge. The Royal York succeeded in making terms by which it was to preserve its own Ritual and, in a great measure, its former autonomy and concluded a Treaty of Union May i9, 1774. Quarrels, however, ensued with appeals to London and, in the end, the Royal York reasserted its independence in 1776, a course of action which was approved by England, April 11, 1778.

In 1778 the Royal York constituted its second Lodge‑at Mannheim‑and, in 1779, one each at Munich and Potsdam. A proposal for union with the Three Globes fell through in this year, but a treaty of friendship was entered into.

In 1779‑November 24‑Baron Heyking was commissioned by the Lodge to travel throughout Poland and, where he found Masons in sufficient numbers, to erect Lodges. This resulted in the formation (1780) of no fewer than eight Lodges and ultimately of an English Provincial Grand Lodge for Poland. From 1782 to 1795 nothing of importance demands record beyond the constitution of seven Lodges and the occasional use of the names Mother‑Lodge and Grand Lodge as applied to the Royal York, but without a specific assertion of either of these titles.

With 1796 there commenced a period of evolution and internal change in this Lodge, not unaccompanied by strife. The central figure of the movement was one of the most prominent Masons of that or any time, noteworthy not only as a Mason, but also as a theologian, politician and author‑Ignatius Aurelius Fessler.

Fessler was born in Lower Hungary in 1756, his father being a retired soldier, his mother a religious devotee. Educated by the Jesuits, but refused admission to their ranks, he took the Capuchin vows in 1773. In 1779 he was ordained priest and was, at that time, of a serious and earnest disposition, verging on bigotry. But above all things he was plain‑spoken and, in 1781, called the Emperor's attention to the state of conventual life. No longer safe in the monasteries from papal vengeance, he was placed in professional chairs at the universities and led, from that time to his death, an eventful and kaleidoscopic life, pursued by the unrelenting hate of the Jesuits. In 1789 he embraced the Lutheran faith and, in 1796, went to Berlin. He entered the Craft at Lemberg in 1783, a period coeval with the fall of the Strict Observance, the founding of the Eclectic Union and the commencement of the first serious attempts to study and appreciate Freemasonry. Throwing himself with his usual ardour into this new pursuit, he succeeded in a few years in making himself acquainted with the broad facts of Masonic history and the whole series of fantastic theories and Rites to which the original institution had nearly succumbed. Such a man could not fail to attract the attention of his Masonic fellows and, accordingly, having joined the Royal York, May 12, 1796, he was much against his wish forced by the Brethren‑November 2o‑to become a member of the Sublime Council. The Three Globes, Frankfort and Hamburg Grand Lodges having all reformed their Rites or were engaged in so doing, the Royal York felt it necessary to follow suit and in Fessler lay their best hope. One other matter also loomed large on the horizon. In consequence of the French Revolution an edict against secret societies might be expected, when, although the Lodges would probably be tolerated, yet it was to be feared that the Royal York would be called upon to submit to the jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge, unless its position as a Grand Lodge in itself could satisfactorily be settled. De Vignolles's letters had indicated the only legal means of attaining this object and Fessler was not the man to neglect such a hint.

Scarcely was Fessler a member of the Sublime Council than he received a commission to draft a Constitution and to revise the Ritual and bring the various Degrees into accord. He threw himself with almost superhuman energy into the work. His first inclination, as was natural to an enlightened Masonic student, was to abolish all High Degrees and he made this proposal, April 12, 1797 (Findel, P‑485). His coadjutors were, however, not yet prepared for such a drastic remedy, so he contented himself with making each (so‑called) High Degree a separate course of philosophy and with remoulding the Sublime Council, which became the Innermost Orient. His new Ritual and Constitutions were rapturously approved and accepted, August 3, 1797. The Constitution was to be subject to revision in three, six and, afterwards, every nine years. In 1798‑June ii‑at Fessler's instance, the Lodge, Royal York of Berlin, was divided into four Lodges‑Frederick William of Justice, Victorious Truth, Urania of Immortality (with Fessler as Master) and Pythagoras of the Flaming Star. These four Lodges remained in many respects one. Membership was interchangeable. The Officers of one Lodge might be chosen from the members of another. They also possessed in common a general and a charity fund. These four Lodges then combined to erect from among themselves the Grand Lodge of Prussia, called Royal York of Friendship, with 14 daughters, viz. 4 in Berlin and io previously warranted elsewhere. The Grand Lodge was at once recognized by the Three Globes and by the King ; but the National Grand Lodge refused to do so, maintaining that a Grand Lodge could not be formed by a single Lodge divided ad hoc, nor could such a body be established in a kingdom where one already existed‑though when Zinnendorff established his Grand Lodge for Germany, the Three Globes and others were already in existence. ‑But, even in the Royal York itself, the measure met with bitter opposition from shortsighted and undiscerning Brethren. Fessler, a strong man, imperious, hasty, though wanting in conciliation, overbore all opposition, but his victory made him enemies.

De La Goannere was first Grand Master and Fessler Deputy Grand Master; but the Grand Master being called to Coruna as Consul, resigned, October 5, 1798 and was succeeded, October z8, by F. W. A. Von Sellentin.

In the same month‑October zo‑the Royal Edict appeared, wherein the Royal York was named as one of the three authorized Grand Lodges of Prussia.

On December Zo, 1798, the Berlin Lodge, Victorious Truth, initiated and admitted to active membership H.R.H. Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, sixth son of George III, nephew of the Duke of York, initiated in 1765. From 1813 to 1843 the Duke of Sussex was Grand Master of England. Some idea of Fessler's Rite may be acquired from the following facts. The Duke of Sussex was passed to the Degree of Fellow Craft, January 1g, 1799 ; raised a Master Mason, February 4 ; received the Degree of Perfect Scots Architect, March 6 ; of Master of Mount Heredom, March io ; of the Cross and Eagle, March 22 ; and became an Elect of the New Jerusalem, December z3. In '1839, being then Grand Master of England, he renewed his permission to continue his name on the books of the Lodge as an active member. Long previously‑April 5, 1799‑the Duke had agreed to accept the position of representative of Grand Lodge, Royal York, at the Grand Lodge of England.

In the same year (1799) three new Lodges were warranted and, in i 8oo, the period arrived for the first revision of the Constitutions. Fessler, meanwhile, had entered into very friendly relations with another reformer‑F. L. Schroederwhose influence now began to act through him on the Royal York.

In August 18oo Fessler once more proposed to abolish High Degrees, but the time for this salutary reform had not yet arrived. Something in the nature of an extrinsic Degree was still urgently in demand. A compromise was effected. In lieu of the High Degrees Fessler elaborated a history of Freemasonry, its origin, revival in 1717, early progress and subsequent obliquities. This was communicated to Master Masons in five Steps to Knowledge, Erkenntniss‑stufen and, to satisfy all parties, each step was preceded by a ceremonial, designed symbolically to illustrate various phases in man's life on earth. The ritual of the three Degrees was remodelled on the basis of that of Schroeder and the Constitutions altered in accordance therewith. The complete revision was accepted, December 31, 18oo (Nettlebladt, p. 636 and Findel, p. 487).

In that year (18oo) one new Lodge was warranted and the Sun Lodge at Bayreuth‑now the Grand Lodge of the Sun‑was affiliated and remained for a time a Provincial Grand Lodge under the Royal York.

In 18oi‑June 5‑the Grand Master Von Sellentin resigned on account of ill‑health and‑September 13‑Ern. Ferd. Klein was installed as Grand Master. The same year saw the birth of a Lodge at Charlottenburg and of the Lodge Socrates at Frankfort. The total of private Lodges had now risen to 16 (Findel, p. 490). In 1802 one Lodge was warranted and the closing scenes of Fessler's connexion with the Lodge were enacted. For some time angry feelings had been at work on both sides, want of appreciation on the one produced bitterness on the other and Fessler's own domineering temper added fuel to the flame. At length the Grand Master himself went over to Fessler's enemies. According to the Constitution the Deputy Grand Master was the all‑powerful prime minister‑the Grand Master, a very limited monarch. But Klein‑a man of character and determination ‑was little inclined to play the part of Roi Faineant to that of Fessler's Maire du Palais and the position became too strained to continue.

On April 30, 18oz, Fessler wrote that to facilitate a reconciliation he intended to lay down his offices pro tem. and requested all complaints against him to be preferred openly at once. On May 7 the Grand Lodge agreed to consider this as a formal resignation and Fessler, indignant, resigned his offices as Deputy Grand Master and Master of Urania on the 9th. His Lodge was then ordered to exclude him from membership and Fessler, hearing of this order‑August 15‑wrote‑ FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 137 September 6‑with haughty scorn, washing his hands once and for all of both Lodge and Grand Lodge (Nettlebladt, p. 641). After many troubles in private and public life, Fessler entered the service of the Czar Alexander in i 8ocg and died December I5, 1839, aged 83, being at the time President of the Russian Lutheran Consistory at Saratow.

In 1803 the Statutes underwent their periodical revision, the Innermost Orient was remodelled and, besides overlooking the dogma and ritual of the Fraternity, became the dispenser of the Steps to Knowledge, while its subordinate Inner Orients were charged with the same duties in the Provinces. But these steps were reduced to a single one under the name of Scots Master and the initiations were abolished, so that practically from henceforth we have a modification of the Hamburg Engbund and the Rite of the Royal York may be looked upon as in all essentials that of Schroeder. The irony of fate willed that Fessler's original plans should be adopted within a few months of his expulsion.

In 1806 the Grand Lodge was closed during the French occupation, but the presence of the enemy served to draw closer the rival German rites and the National Grand Lodge entered into a pact of amity with the Royal York. In 1808 the Grand Lodge resolved that the officers of private Lodges must be confirmed and approved by itself, thus somewhat, though possibly unintentionally, limiting its own representative character. And at the revision of the Statutes in 1872, the distinctively Christian requirements for initiation were modified, so that Jewish candidates were accepted.

In 1810‑March i 8‑Grand Master Klein died, and‑April 3o‑J. H. A. Hey was elected to the office. In 1832 Hey resigned from sickness and old age and died December 17, 183 8. He was succeeded by Prof. H. F. Link as Grand Master, who died in office‑January 1, 1851. On June 2 ensuing, Dr. C. von Kloeden was elected Grand Master and also died in office‑January 1o, 1856. A similar fate befel the next Grand Master‑Dr. C. W. F. Amelang‑who died December 3, 18 5 8 ; and, in the following year‑March 26‑Prince Louis William Augustus of Baden, a brother of the Grand Duke, was installed as Grand Master. The Grand Master's tenure of office being terminable with the periodical revisions of the Constitutions, the Prince declined re‑election at the revision of 1863, but was appointed Hon. Grand Master. In 1864 Dr. J. F. Schnakenburg was installed Grand Master (under whom the Statutes were altered to admit of Jews being initiated) and, in 1873, Professor Chr. Fr. L. Herrig, who was re‑elected in 1882.

VI. The Grand Lodge Sun at Bayreuth

On January 21, 1741, the Margrave Frederick of Brandenburg‑Kulmbach erected in his own castle at Bayreuth, the capital of his dominions, a Lodge under the name of the Sun, of which he remained Master till his death in 1763. On December 5, 1741, this Castle Sun instituted in Bayreuth a City Sun with much pomp, the Margrave himself taking part in the procession. The Castle Sun soon grafted on itself a Directory of Scots Masters, which, in some respects, discharged the functions of a non‑representative Grand Lodge.

In 1757‑October 24‑this Directory opened the Lodge Lebanon of the Three Cedars, in Erlangen ; and, in 175 8‑flay 17‑that of the Three Stars, in Anspach, the capital of the Onolzbach or cadet line of Brandenburg.

In 1763 the Margrave was succeeded by his uncle, the Margrave Frederick Christian, both in his civil and Masonic capacity.

In 1769, the elder line being extinct, the Margrave Frederick Carl Alexander of Brandenburg‑Onolzbach (the younger or Anspach line) united the two Principalities. The Anspach Lodge of 175 8 being also possessed of a Scots Directory, the new ruler caused it in 1772 to amalgamate with the (Castle) Sun Directory and removed the seat of this conjoint Directory to Anspach, granting it jurisdiction over the two Sun Lodges in Bayreuth, the Lebanon Lodge in Erlangen and the Three Stars Lodge in Anspach. From 1774 therefore the Sun ceased to work as a Mother‑Lodge. In 1776 the City Sun went over to the Strict Observance, which the Margrave himself had joined in the same year, being the first reigning Prince who ever signed the act of Implicit (or Unquestioning) Obedience. He himself was the son of the Margrave Carl who had espoused the sister of Frederick the Great and been initiated by that king in 1740 in Frederick's Royal Lodge. The Margrave Frederick dying childless in 1799, the Brandenburg Principalities reverted to Prussia.

By the Royal Edict of October 2o, 1798, all Prussian Lodges were required to hold from one of the three Berlin Grand Lodges. Accordingly, in 1799November ig‑the Anspach and Erlangen Lodges joined the Three Globes ; whilst the two Suns joined the Royal York in i 8oo, the Castle Sun being made a Provincial Grand Lodge. It naturally accepted the Fessler Rite and was granted an Inner Orient, April 1, 1802. The Lodge of Truth and Friendship at Furth, warranted by the Royal York‑March 4, 1803‑was placed under its rule, also the Morning Star at Hof, constituted June 9, 1799.

In 1806 Anspach fell to the new kingdom of Bavaria. It had meanwhile been raised to the rank of a Provincial Grand Lodge Anacharsis, under the Three Globes, with several daughter Lodges and, at the time of these all becoming Bavarian, Freemasonry was under an interdict in that country by virtue of decrees issued March 2 and August 16, 1785 ; renewed by the Elector‑afterwards King of Bavaria‑Maximilian Joseph, himself a Freemason, November 4, 1799 and March 5, 1804. In 1807, however‑May 8‑the King issued an edict of toleration, to which were attached very stringent conditions. A list of all members was to be forwarded to the authorities every three months, all changes of officers or by‑laws to be notified, correspondence with Berlin to cease, etc. A further edict was published January 17, 1808, forbidding all State servants to join the Craft. As this deprived the Lodges of all their best members, judges, notaries, professors, military officers, even schoolmasters and clergymen, the blow was a severe one; but many of the Lodges nevertheless continued to struggle on as independent communities, until in better times they were able to join one of the Grand Lodges of Germany. By an English patent‑dated June 6, 18o6‑" Charles Alexander, Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Principal Commissary to His Imperial Majesty in Germany," was appointed Pro vincial Grand Master for Bavaria. This description, however, is vague and misleading, since with the exception of Ratisbon‑which was not permanently incorporated with the new kingdom until 181o‑Bavarian Masonry was extinct.

In 18io‑June 3o‑Bayreuth also was acquired by the kingdom of Bavaria and the Lodges had to conform to the same rules, the Sun losing not fewer than fifty of its best members.

The Provincial Grand Masters meanwhile, under the Royal York Grand Lodge, were Count von Giech, von Volderndorf and Schunter.

In 18 i i‑December 13‑the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Sun declared itself an independent Grand Lodge, with four daughters, viz. the City Sun under a new name‑Eleusis of Silence‑the Truth and Friendship at Furth, the Morning Star and the Golden Balance at Hof‑which was warranted February zo, 1804, by the National Grand Lodge of Berlin. By slow degrees and in spite of difficulties, it added to this number. The ritual was naturally the so‑called Fessler, that is, the Schroeder slightly modified, which does not differ materially from the English. The first Grand Master‑Schunter‑was followed by Munch, Birner and, in 1844 by S. Kolb‑under whom, in 1847, the Constitutions were amended so as to admit Jews to the full benefits of the Fraternity. In 1849‑August z5‑Chr. K. Kunzel was elected Grand Master and, in 1862, Friedrich Feustel. At this time the Grand Lodge Sun numbered ten daughters. New Constitutions were drawn up in 1868 and accepted in 1869. They were among the most liberal in Germany. The Grand Lodge was thoroughly representative of the English system; its seat as an executive body was at Bayreuth, but it held, in turn, an annual deliberative meeting and festival at the various towns where it possessed a Lodge.

In 1872 Bluntschli became Grand Master and, in 1878, Feustel once more.

VII. The national Grand Lodge of Saxony at Dresden

Many Provincial Grand Masters for the circle of Upper Saxony and for the Electorate of Saxony were appointed by England in the eighteenth century. For instance, in 1737, by Lord Darnley, H. W. von Marschall to the Circle of Upper Saxony ; in 1762, Major Aloys Peter D'Agdolo to the Electorate ; and, in 1766, Count von Werthern to Upper Saxony. There were possibly others, but it cannot be shown that they ever warranted a single Lodge or exercised their office in any way. Of Marschall it is known that he joined and accepted office in the Lodge Absalom at Hamburg and nothing more, whilst, at that very time, Rutowsky was active in his especial district ; and, of the two latter, they were expressly relieved of their duties in the 1773 contract with Zinnendorff (cf. Findel, p. 8zz). Werthern indeed went over to the Strict Observance immediately after his appointment.

Nevertheless a Grand Lodge of Saxony existed at a very early date. Count Rutowsky‑initiated at Warsaw in 1735‑who had been a brigadier in the French service, entered that of the Elector of Saxony in 1731, was a Field‑Marshal and Governor of Dresden in 1741. He died March 16, 1764. In 1738 he erected a Lodge of the Three Eagles at Dresden. It increased so rapidly that in 1739 a new Lodge of the Three Golden Swords was formed also at Dresden which, two years afterwards, numbered over fifty members. In 1741‑February 15‑a third Lodgeof the Three Swans‑was founded. These three met together, June z4, 1741, raised the Three Swords to the rank of a Grand Lodge and chose Rutowsky as Grand Master. It appears to have been taken for granted by German writers that Rutowsky held an English patent‑which may possibly be true, although, in the absence of anything like evidence to authenticate the belief, it must of necessity remain an open question. 

The Three Swans amalgamated with the Three Swords, July z, 1741. Earlier in the same year‑March 2o‑a Lodge was formed at Leipzig, which subsequently became Minerva of the Compasses and, afterwards, the independent Lodge Minerva of the Three Palms. If not warranted by Rutowsky in the first instance, it certainly owned his sway circa 1747.

In 1742‑January 31‑this Lodge Minerva inaugurated the Lodge at Altenburg, afterwards Archimedes of the Three Tracing Boards, one of the five independent Lodges of Germany. This also joined the Union.

Rutowsky further warranted‑September z, 1743‑the Three Roses at Sachsenfels, which was one of the first to join the Strict Observance ; and in 1744 the Three Squares in Nossen, which soon afterwards died out. There are also traces of one or two other Lodges. The existence of this flourishing body at so early a date is very remarkable.

In 1755 the first efforts of won Hund's still undeveloped imaginings may be traced in a Lodge‑Of the Three Palms‑warranted by him in Dresden on September 5. ' In 176o the Three Globes also began to constitute a few Lodges in Saxony. But this part of Germany was the very centre of the Strict Observance‑won Hund possessed large estates in the neighbourhood, at Lausitz and elsewhere and naturally the first to be overrun by the new Rite. In 1762‑September 5‑the Three Swords accepted the Templar Ritual and system and every Lodge in the Electorate followed suit. The history of the Craft in Saxony for the ensuing half century is comprised in that of the Strict Observance, the three Grand Lodges at Berlin and the Grand Lodge of Hanover, all of which bodies constituted Lodges in the country at various times.

In 1805 some of the Dresden Lodges began to moot the question of establishing a National Grand Lodge. The idea met with general favour, four Lodges only those at Gorlitz and Bautzen and the two at Leipzig‑raising objections. But the project came to naught, the stern necessities of war occupying men's minds to the exclusion of other matters.

In 1811, however, the subject was revived and a National Grand Lodge for Saxony erected. Twelve Lodges combined for the purpose. These had been constituted, in the years within brackets, as follows :‑By Rutowsky‑1, The Three Swords, Dresden, being the original Grand Lodge of 1742: By the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes‑2, Golden Wall, Bautzen (1802) ; 3, Leopard, in Liibben (1809) ; 4, Golden Cross, in Merseburg (1805) : By the National Grand Lodge of Prussia‑5, The Desert Well, at Kottbus (1797) ; 6, Golden Apple, Dresden (1776) ; 7, the Three Hills, Freiberg (1798) : By von Hund‑8, the Crowned Serpent, Gorlitz 0751): By the Three Roses of 1743 under the Strict Observance‑9, the Three Flames, Plauen (1788) : By the Grand Lodge Royal York‑io, Harmony, in Hohenstein (1799) : By the Provincial Grand Lodge of Hamburg‑1i, the Three Pillars, in Triebel (i 8o6) : By Lodge Archimedes of Altenburg‑12, Archimedes of the Saxon Union, Schneeberg (i 8o6). It will be remarked that Nos. 1, 9 and i z connect this new Grand Lodge historically with the extinct Grand Lodge of Rutowsky. From this date the Grand Lodge, in spite of a few losses, gradually, but continuously, increased the number of its Lodges. Some, however, of these were lost in 1815, because a part of Saxony then passed under Prussian rule.

The Constitutions were accepted September 28, 1811 and signed by the Lodges of the Union. They were the most liberal in Germany. The Union did not forbid High Degrees, but simply ignored them and dealt only with the Craft. It permitted any ritual in the three Degrees provided a copy was approved by Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge consisted of two bodies. A legislative, composed of the Master, Deputy Master and Wardens of each Lodge, with a Dresden Brother specially appointed to represent each Lodge. These all had a deliberative voice, but each Lodge only had one vote. An executive, composed of the Grand Officers chosen from among the members of the legislative body. The ritual used by the Grand Lodge and recommended to its daughters was that of Schroeder.

Of the earlier Grand Masters of this body there is no list available. In 1866 G. H. Warnatz, M.D., was elected to the chair and, dying in 1872, was succeeded ‑October 27‑by Dr. Eckstein, who gave place to Albert Wengler in 1881. Under Dr. Eckstein the revision of the Statutes, begun in 1874, was completed October 18, 1876. The chief alteration was a declaration that Jews were eligible for initiation ‑they had already been admitted as visitors in 1837. The executive still remained at Dresden, but it was enacted that the annual meeting of Grand Lodge might be movable.

VIII. Grand Lodge Concord at Darmstadt

When Louis X, Landgrave of Hesse‑Darmstadt, commenced his reign in 1790, the only Lodge in his dominions was that at Giessen, of which he was a member, as well as its chief and patron. In 1785 it had joined the Eclectic Union. In 1793 the English Provincial Grand Lodge at Frankfort commenced to warrant a series of Lodges in this principality; which, in i 8o6, was made a Grand Duchy, Louis X becoming the first Grand Duke Louis I. By the events of 1814 he acquired a considerable extension of territory and in the new Provinces of his state existed other Lodges. He died in 1830, protector of all these Lodges and his successor, Louis II, who took an active part in Lodge work, also assumed the title and duties of Protector. By 1839 all the still existing Hessian Lodges had joined the Eclectic Union.

In i8o8 the Grand Orient of France had constituted the Lodge Nascent Dawn in Frankfort, which contained a large Jewish element. After various quarrels this Lodge split into two factions : the Landgrave Karl of Hesse‑Cassel recon stituted the Christian members as Karl of the Dawning Light, according to the Rite of the rectified Strict Observance, whilst the Jewish Brethren received in 1817 a warrant from London as the Lodge of the Nascent Dawn (No. 684). In 1836 Prince Karl died; and in 184o‑September 27‑Karl of the Dawning Light joined the Eclectic Union. The Lodge, however, could not agree on all points with its new Grand Lodge, more especially in relation to the High Degrees and, after many quarrels and bickerings, was excluded on July 2, 1844. Its part was taken up warmly by the Friends of Concord at Mayence and St. John the Evangelist of Concord at Darmstadt, with the result that in 1845 these two Lodges retired from the Eclectic Union.

The three Lodges, which had thus recovered their independence, petitioned the Grand Duke and Protector, Louis II, to form a new Eclectic Union; their prayer was granted and nine prominent members were deputed to frame a Con stitution. This act of foundation (Grundvertrag) emphasized the purely representative system of Grand Lodge government, forbade all High Degrees (Karl of the Dawning Light voluntarily dissolved its Scots Lodge, which had been the origin of the whole quarrel!) and had but one fault. It refused even the right of visiting to Jews. It was signed by the three Lodges‑February 27, 1846 ; approved by the Grand Duke‑March 22‑and on the following day the three Lodges met, proclaimed the Grand Lodge Concord and elected J. H. Lotheissen, President of the Court of Appeal, as their first Grand Master.

Curiously enough the Lodge Karl, whose traditions were so purely Christian, was the first to protest against the intolerance of the new Grand Lodge and this it did within fifteen months. On December 14, 1847, a majority in the Lodge repealed the By‑law which debarred Jewish Masons from entering their doors and the minority, headed by Leykam (one of the nine mentioned above), resigned their membership. In 1849‑March 15‑nine of this minority petitioned the Grand Lodge for a Warrant for a new Lodge in Frankfort, to be called Karl of Lindenberg. The old Lodge desired to raise no objection, but as it felt that it could not meet the new one in perfect amity, sought permission‑November 18‑to leave the Darmstadt Grand Lodge. Both petitions were granted and Karl of the Dawning Light rejoined the Eclectic Union June 30, 185o. Karl of Lindenberg also seceded to the Eclectic Union in 1878.

The Grand Lodge Concord‑consisting of three Lodges in all‑elected Betz as Grand Master in 1851 and, in 1853, Lotheissen once more.

Meanwhile, Louis II, who died in 1848, had been succeeded by Louis III, who was not a Mason, nor did he appear to interest himself at all in Masonic matters. Great therefore was the astonishment produced by a Grand Ducal decree of 1859, expressing a wish to see all Hessian Lodges united under the authority of the Grand Lodge Concord at Darmstadt. This affected four Eclectic Lodges, one each at Alzey, Giessen, Offenbach and Worms ; and a royal wish being equivalent to a command, non‑compliance probably meant dissolution. On the other hand, submission was difficult, because the Eclectic Union having admitted Jews to initiation in 1848, whereas the Darmstadt Union would not even allow them to visit, the Lodges ran the risk of losing their Jewish Brethren, who had become very dear to them; Giessen especially was largely recruited from members of the Hebrew race. Grand Lodge, however, passed a resolution to allow these four Lodges to violate the Constitutions, provided they would consent to certain disabilities, viz. deprivation of the right to vote on matters of Ritual and inability of their members to fill offices in Grand Lodge. The four Lodges then joined, making seven in all.

In 1859‑September ii‑Lotheissen died and Matthew Leykam, Doctor of Laws, was elected Grand Master. As the latter resided in Frankfort, the Grand Lodge was removed for nine years to that city.

A new Lodge (No. 8) was constituted at Friedberg on November io, 1862 and, in the same year, the Constitutions were revised. Intercourse with their Jewish Brethren having removed many prejudices, the right of visiting was conceded to all Masons of that faith.

The ninth and last Lodge was warranted at Bingen, July 7, 1867, and‑a further sign of progress‑its Constitutions permitted it to initiate Jews, but it had to submit to the same restrictions as the other four Lodges.

In 1868 the Christian Lodges, " out of their exceeding love," voluntarily conceded full rights to the five mixed Lodges, merely debarring them from furnishing a Grand Master from among their members. Leykam, who died on February 2o in this year, was succeeded as Grand Master by the Postmaster‑General, Pfaltz.

At the revision of the Statutes in 1872 the Jews were granted full rights ; so that in all Germany there are now only two Grand Lodges, the National and Three Globes, both at Berlin, which insist upon a candidate for Freemasonry being a Christian.

Independent Lodges

I. Minerva of the Three Palms, Leipzig

In 1736 seven Masons who had been made abroad were in the habit of meeting together in Leipsic and, on March 20, 1741, they formed themselves into a Lodge. This Lodge is usually accounted a member, from the commencement, of Rutowsky's Grand Lodge of Upper Saxony ; but it is also possible that it only entered into friendly relations with the Three Gold Swords. The Lodge had no special name, but it prospered exceedingly and, at the end of the year, already numbered 46 members. In 1742 its services were called into requisition to inaugurate the Lodge at Altenburg. In 1745 it split up and divided into a French Lodge of the Three Compasses and a German‑speaking Lodge, Minerva. These reunited on June 5, 1747, as Minerva of the Three Compasses, which was confirmed by the Grand Master Rutowsky. In 1747‑November 2o‑a Scots Lodge, Apollo, was grafted on the Lodge.

In 1766 a difference of opinion respecting the expediency of joining the Strict Observance caused a majority of the members to found a new Lodge, Minerva of the Three Palms Minerva zu den drei Palmen, under von Hund and, in 1772, they finally severed themselves entirely from Minerva of the Three Compasses, which gradually died out. The Knightly Chapter was erected March 16, 1767.

In 1773 the Lodge constituted Minerva of the Three Lights at Querfurt and, in the following year, the Scots Lodge Apollo changed its name to Karl of the Three Palms, in honour of Prince Karl of Courland, a member of the Lodge.

The Lodge took an active part in all the affairs of the Strict Observance, but began to tire of the folly about 1776. It therefore sent no Deputies to the Wilhelmsbad Convent in 1782, nor did it adopt the rectified system. On the contrary, it ceased in 1776 to create fresh knights, so that the Chapter gradually died out, until at last the Count Hohenthal alone was left‑who, to keep the history of the Chapter alive, formed a so‑called Inner Union of a few chosen members of the 4th or Scots Grade. The exact scope of this institution has, however, eluded research.

In 1783 the Lodge for a time showed signs of an inclination to join the newly formed Eclectic Union, but it decided ultimately to remain isolated, or, rather, independent.

The last of the Knights, Hohenthal, died in 18i g and the Constitutions of the Lodge were remodelled, April 8, 182o. The old Scots Lodge Karl was formed into a Directoral Lodge, governing the affairs of the Lodge. It consisted of twenty seven Masters. Seven members of this Directoral Lodge combined to form an Inner Union, who also completed their number from time to time in a similar manner. The duty and privilege of the Inner Union was to discuss all matters of importance before they were submitted to the Directoral Lodge, etc.

Mahlmann, Master, 1813‑26, revised the Ritual which had suffered much during the Strict Observance times and this version was accepted in 1829, three years after his death.

The Statutes underwent revision in 1832 and 1867. On the latter occasion Jews were freed from all disabilities. In 1863 the Lodge had 359 members, which in 1878 had increased to 414, and in 1885 to 447ò

II. Baldwin of the Linden, Leipzig

In 1776, February 7, several Masons, among them some of the Minerva members, founded a Lodge Baldwin under the Zinnendorff Rite. The Lodge was constituted on February 23 by Duke Ernest of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg, Grand FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 145 Master of the National Grand Lodge of Berlin. It suspended work July z4, 1781, but resumed on March 13, 1783, under the title of the Linden (lime‑tree). In 1807‑November 7‑this Lodge threw off its allegiance and declared itself independent.

Beckmann, the English Provincial Grand Master for Hamburg, granted it a new Constitution‑January 14, i 8ocg‑as an independent Lodge under the title Baldwin of the Linden. The Lodge adopted the Schroeder Ritual and new Constitutions‑which were revised in 18 3 3 and 18 5 4.

The Lodge joined the Grand Lodge of Saxony in 1815, but retired once more in 18 z4, after which date it maintained its independence. Its members numbered in 1864, 3 Oz ; in 1878, 424 ; and in 1885, 509. The strength of the Leipzig Lodges was remarkable. There were but three in the city : Minerva, independent, with 447 members; Baldwin, independent, with 509; and Apollo‑under the Grand Lodge of Saxony‑with 3 84.

III. Archimedes of the Three Tracing-Boards in Altenburg

In 1741 several Altenburg Masons applied to H. W. von Marschall, Provincial Grand Master for Upper Saxony, for permission to erect a Lodge. Marschall granted the prayer and forwarded a copy of the English Ritual, but advised them to apply elsewhere for a Warrant. The Brethren turned to the Minerva Lodge at Leipsic and were constituted by a Deputation from that body, January 31, 1742. From the very first, Lodge Archimedes conducted its proceedings in the vernacular idiom and was probably the earliest German Lodge that ever did so ; in 1743 it published the first German Masonic song book. In 1751 Prince Louis Ernest of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg was Master of the Lodge and he procured from the Three Globes a Warrant for a Scots Chapter, which, however, died out almost immediately afterwards. The Altenburg Fraternity, which always adopted innovations with reluctance, worked pure English Masonry until 1775.

As seen already, on June 30 of that year, Duke Ernest II of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg was elected Grand Master of Zinnendorff's Grand Lodge; and Archimedes naturally joined the National Grand Lodge and accepted the Swedish Rite. Although the Duke resigned in disgust the following year, the Lodge did not reassert its independence until 1785 and, subsequently to that date, continued to use the Ritual, to which it had become accustomed in the preceding ten years, even keeping up the practice after joining the Eclectic Union in 1788.

It seceded from the Eclectic Union, in anticipation of the threatening political troubles, in 1793 ; the same reasons induced it to suspend its meetings on January 9, 1795, after having declared its officers " permanent " during the interim. In 1796 it reopened. At the beginning of the nineteenth century it rejected the Zinnendorff Ritual and accepted as a temporary measure that of the Eclectic Union. Pierer received orders to compile a new one and, after carefully comparing the Rituals of England, Scotland, Ireland, the Royal York and Hamburg, his version F. IV‑I0 146 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE was accepted in 1803.

In the same year Schneider published the Constitutions of the Lodge, a work even now much sought after for its valuable contributions to Masonic archxology, which show a wonderful power of just criticism considering the time at which they appeared. From this epoch may be dated the rise of the brilliant Altenburg school of Masonic historians and students, to whose labours all are much indebted. No fewer than three Masonic journals owe their birth to this school‑the Journal fur Freimaurer, the Zeitschrift fur Freiliaaurerei and the Ziegeldecker‑which in later years became the Bruderbldtter. The last‑named publication continued to appear until 1854. Fallou, whose work has been alluded to so often, was a member of the Lodge.

In 1803, December 18, the Lodge opened a branch at Gera, but this was afterwards constituted by it an independent Lodge, October 25, 1804. The Altenburg Lodge divided into two in 1803 and erected a Directoral Lodge to govern the Lodge at Gera and the two new divisions at Altenburg ; but the whole arrangement was abrogated in 1805, when the old position was resumed.

In 1809 the Lodge established a branch in Schneeberg, but this joined the Grand Lodge of Saxony in 1812.

In the election of its officers, etc., this Lodge followed the English plan ; but it possessed a sort of permanent committee to sift matters before they came before the Lodge, consisting of the Master and Deputy Master, the Wardens, all Past Masters and Wardens. Its library contained over 700 valuable works. In 1823 it opened a savings' bank, largely used by the surrounding population. In 1861 its members numbered zio ; in 1878, over z5o ; and in 1885, z71.

IV. Archimedes of Eternal Union at Gera

On January 16, 1803, several resident Masons formed a Masonic club in Gera (the capital of the principality of Reuss the Younger, one of the pigmy independent states of Germany) and, at the close of the same year‑December 18‑this club was declared a branch establishment or Deputation Lodge of Archimedes at Altenburg, under the name Archimedes of Eternal Union. That is, it could only act under the directions of its parent and in its name, much as an agent acts for his principal. This state of tutelage proving inconvenient, the Lodge petitioned for independence and, in the result, was reconstituted by Lodge Archimedes (of Altenburg), October 25, 1804. The German Grand Lodges, however, refusing to acknowledge the right of one Lodge to constitute another and declaring the Lodge at Gera to be clandestine, the subject of this sketch at last petitioned Schroeder in Hamburg to grant it an English Charter. This was issued April 30, 18o6. It then accepted and worked the Schroeder or Hamburg Ritual. Gera was not in the jurisdiction of Hamburg; but Grand Master Beckmann granted the Warrant by virtue of his right to do so outside his district in states where no Grand Lodge existed. (G. W. Speth gave the Warrant at length in The Freemason of May 16, 1885.) At Gera and Hamburg the Lodge was considered as directly dependent a FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 147 on London, whilst by the English authorities it seems to have been regarded as subject to Hamburg. This may account for the fact, that it only received an English number (669) in 1815, five years after the Provincial Grand Lodge for Hamburg had ceased to exist. Virtually, however, Archimedes retained its independence. The princes of Reuss were members and patrons of this Lodge. Speth (in Royal Freemasons) gives as such Henry LIV of Reuss‑Lobenstein (i 81o), Henry LXXII of Reuss‑Ebersdorff and Lobenstein (1827), Henry LXXVI of Reuss‑Lobenstein F (1852) and Henry LXVII of Reuss‑Schleiz (1852). In 1862 the membership of this Lodge was 121 ; in 1885, 187.

V. Karl of the Wreath of Rue, Hildburgshausen

Hildburgshausen is a town in the small Duchy of Saxe‑Meiningen. According to the Handbucb, a Lodge, Ernestus, was warranted here by England in 175 5, which only lived a few years. No trace of it is to be found in the English Lodge lists. In 1787 a second Lodge was warranted‑also from London, which was continued in the English Lists till the Union; this was the Lodge Charles of the Ruewreath, but the Lodge lists call it Lodge of St. Charles, No. 495. The Wreath of Rue is part of the armorial bearings of the Dukes of Mecklenburg. It worked independently under the immediate protection of its princes and the number of its members in 18 8 5 was 5 4.

k P In 1883‑October 14‑the five Independent Lodges entered into a Treaty of Alliance and Bond of Union.

Extinct Grand Lodges

I. Hanover

Of all the extinct Grand Lodges of Germany this is, by far, the most important and, naturally, of most interest to English readers.

On July 26, 1743, Provincial Grand Master Luttmann, of Hamburg, deputed Simon as Provincial Grand Master for Hanover, but no sign exists that he ever displayed any activity in that office. There was, indeed, inanition, almost complete, between 1743 and 1746, explained by Findel as due to an inquiry instituted by the ecclesiastical court of Hanover against the theologian Kirchmann, who had been initiated in Harburg. The court forbade all clergymen to belong to any Fraternity whatever.

On January i g, 1744, Lieutenant, afterwards Captain, of Horse Grenadiers, Mehmet von Konigstreu was initiated in Lodge Absalom at Hamburg. His father, Mahomet, had been taken prisoner of war as a child in Candia during the Venetian Wars. Prince Maximilian of Hanover brought him home and had him baptized Louis Max. Mehmet. He was subsequently ennobled, appointed Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King George and died at Kensington Palace, 1726. In 1746‑ 148 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE January 2i‑he obtained a Warrant from Luttmann and, on the 29th, founded the Lodge Frederick in Hanover, so called in honour of Frederick, Prince of Wales. In 1753‑June 27‑Hinuber was elected Master and, in 175 5, in consequence of a slight difference of opinion with Hamburg and of discovering that the Lodge had not been registered in England, he made use of his business relations with England to ascertain if there was any chance of obtaining a Provincial Warrant for Hanover. Being assured that if the Lodge would indicate some special Brother, a patent would be forthcoming, the Lodge elected Hinuber as Provincial Grand Master‑June 25 ‑and‑November z8‑he was appointed Provincial Grand Master of all His Majesty's German dominions, " with a power [in the Province] to choose his successors " (Constitutions, 1756, p. 333). The Grand Lodge Frederick in Hanover was registered as No. zo8, became No. 122 in 1792, and was " dropped out " at the Union (1813).

There sprang up in Austria and Germany a system of Deputy Lodges, one of which‑The Three Hearts‑was formed in connexion with the Lodge Frederick at Hanover (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, v. 15). Deputy Lodges were of two kinds, viz. those meeting on single occasions for specified purposes away from the accustomed meeting‑places, held at The Hague and at Hamburg, for the initiation respectively of the Duke of Lorraine and of Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia; and those of a more permanent character, where the Lodge empowered some of its members residing at a place distant from the regular meeting‑place to assemble, appointing, for that purpose, a Deputy Master, who was authorized to initiate candidates and, generally, to transact Masonic business. All expenses attendant upon such meetings were borne by the parent, who also received, without deduction, the fees paid by the candidates, together with any other revenue.

In 1754 John Frederick Raban de Sporcke, attached to the Danish Court and a member of Lodge Frederick, went on a short visit to Vienna, where he met some members of the Craft and others, who desired to be initiated. Knowing that, in 1747, permission had been granted for Deputy Lodges elsewhere‑one especially at G6ttingen (named Augusta), dissolved in 1753‑he sought and obtained permission to hold one at Vienna, on condition that the Lodge should be closed when he left the city. He was, of course, appointed Master. The furniture and all requisites were sent to Vienna from the Lodge Frederick. The patent was dated May 22, 1754 and the Lodge was bound to Anderson's New Book of Constitutions. This Deputy Lodge was opened on June zi following under the name of The Three Hearts. One of the candidates on June 28 is described as " Hobart, son of Lord Buckingham." From particulars given afterwards this was evidently George Hobart, eldest son of John, first Earl of Buckinghamshire, who succeeded as third Earl on August 3, 1793. He was M.P. for St. Ives in 1754 and for Beeralston in 1761, 1768 and 1774.

He was for a time Opera Manager in London and, in 1762, was appointed Secretary to the Embassy in St. Petersburg (as it was then known), where his half brother, John, who became second Earl, was Ambassador. Hobart was raised to the dignity of a Master Mason on July i z of the same year. Overtures FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 149 were then made by the Lodge of The Three Cannons for an amalgamation, but this was not possible because of the condition that the Lodge must be under the control of de Sporcke. One interesting feature in connexion with this Lodge is that all the members adopted assumed names, such as Cleander, Liberty, Minerva, Galen, Nagel, Xerxes and the like. After the departure of de Sporcke for Hanover, notwithstanding the injunction, J. A. Hinuber became Master, rendering account of all transactions to Lodge Frederick at Hanover. This Deputy Lodge came to an end on July z1, ‑175 5.

On June z4, ‑1756, the Crand Lodge made a formal visitation to the Lodge Frederick and the next year‑January 3‑1‑Frederick accepted a Warrant of Confirmation from the new Grand Lodge of Hanover.

On the outbreak of war all Masonic meetings " with the enemies of their country " were avoided and this put a complete stop to Masonic work until 175 8. In 176o a Scots Lodge, Karl of the Purple Mantle and, in 1762, May 24, the Lodge George of Hanover, were founded.

In ‑1764 Hanover was formed by von Hund into the Prefectory Callenberg under the Strict Observance system, which, at first, was vigorously opposed by the Grand Lodge and its daughters, but gradually acquired preponderating influence. The last Craft meeting of the Lodge Frederick occurred January 1 z, ‑1765.

Schubart arrived in Hanover October 13, ‑1766 and commenced his propaganda on the 27th. Prince, afterwards Grand Duke, Karl of Mecklenberg‑Strelitz joined the Strict Observance in Celle and was appointed Protector of the district ; on November z 5 the Lodges George and Frederick dissolved in order to reconstitute themselves as the Strict Observance Lodge of the White Horse and thus the Grand Lodge of Hanover ceased to exist. As a consequence, in ‑1773 Hanover was made a neutral territory, open alike to the Grand Lodge of England and the National Grand Lodge of Prussia at Berlin.

Zinnendorff, who immediately invaded the district, met with remarkable success. In ‑1774 he established a Lodge of the Golden Compasses at Gottingen ; in the same year this Lodge warranted the Black Bear in Hanover and the Crocodile in Harburg, in ‑1775 a Lodge in Luneburg ; whilst, in ‑1777, the National Grand Lodge constituted the Cedar in Hanover, a Lodge in Stade and, in 1778, one in Hameln.

Meanwhile the Fraternity had found themselves disappointed in the Strict Observance and took no interest in Lodge matters, so much so that the White Horse did not meet between 1775 and 1778. The Protector, Grand Duke Karl, to remedy this state of affairs, ceased working the Strict Observance Rite, gradually altered the Ritual of the first three Degrees and, without formally renouncing the Templar connexion, practically revived the extinct Grand Lodge by converting the Scots Lodge Karl of the Purple Mantle into a Directoral Lodge over all Lodges of the Strict Observance in His Majesty's dominions in Brunswick, Luneberg and Hanover. After the Wilhelmsbad Convent of 1782 the Fraternity in these lands declined to accept the rectified system and calmly continued in their own 150 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE way. Some few of the Zinnendorff Lodges, more especially the Black Bear, at this time entered into more or less intimate relations with the Lodges under the Grand Duke, Governor of Hanover for George III.

In '1786 this Prince, being in England, procured, with Col. Graefe's assistance, the reinstatement of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Electorate of Hanover and British Dominions in Germany (the patent granted to Prince Charles of Mecklen burg‑Strelitz bore date July 5,'1786‑Grand Lodge Records) together with a Warrant under the No. 486 for the former Zinnendorff Lodge of the Black Bear. The Lodge White Horse then prefixed its former name and became Frederick of the White Horse and, November z8, this Lodge and the Black Bear joined in re‑establishing the Provincial Grand Lodge. A Royal Arch Chapter was also added by Graefe, but was very short lived.

The district was, however, invaded in '1786 by the Eclectic Union at Hoya and, in 1792, by the National Grand Lodge of Germany at Osterode.

In 1796 new Statutes were enacted in consonance with the new arrangements, of which the chief fault was the non‑admission of Jewish candidates.

In 1791 the Provincial Grand Lodge constituted new Lodges in Munden and Einbeck. In '1799 Fessler visited Hanover and was enthusiastically received, as was Schroeder in '1 8oo. The immediate result of these visits was a closer bond of union between the Grand Lodge Royal York and the Provincial Grand Lodges for Hanover and Hamburg. But of still greater importance was the consequent adoption by Lodge Frederick‑August io, '18oi‑of the Schroeder Ritual, an example soon followed by the Provincial Grand Lodge and all its daughters. This opened the door to candidates of the Jewish persuasion.

A troublous time now awaited the Fraternity in Hanover : in 1803 the French troops entered into possession of the country and, in 18o6, were replaced by the Prussians. Meanwhile the Lodges only met when absolutely necessary, but it is worthy of note that they yet managed secretly to celebrate the birthday of King George. In 18o6 the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes constituted a Lodge at Osnabruck. In x807 the Lodges summoned courage to resume work; in i 8o8 new Statutes were promulgated; in '1 8og the Provincial Grand Lodge warranted a Lodge in Liineburg and that of the Three Globes another in Goslar ; and in 18 '1 o Hanover became an integral part of the short‑lived kingdom of Westphalia. The Grand Lodge of that kingdom was, however, so tolerant that the Lodges were not compelled to give in their adhesion and, although some few Hanoverian Lodges joined it, the Provincial Grand Lodge retained its separate existence, as did most of its daughters.

In 1813‑November 3 o‑Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, fifth son of George III, visited the Lodge Frederick of the White Horse and, at the ensuing banquet, prayed admission as an active member. It is needless to say that the request was joyfully granted. The events Of 1814‑15 raised the Electorate of Hanover to the rank of a kingdom, besides considerably enlarging its boundaries. In 1815 the Provincial Grand Lodge constituted a Lodge in Nienburg and affiliated FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 151 the one warranted in Celle by Hamburg in the previous year. It also received the adhesion of a Lodge in Gottingen which had been erected by the Grand Lodge of Westphalia and several of its daughters who had joined that body now returned to the national fold.

Karl, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, died November 6, 18 16 and was succeeded as Provincial Grand Master by Count L. F. von Kilmansegge, whose appointment is first noticed in the Freemasons' Calendar for 1822. In the same publication Lodge Frederick of the White Horse reappears as No. 146* and eleven other German Lodges‑Nos. 734, Frankfort; 735, Nuremberg; 736‑44, Hanoverare added to the roll, all under the year 1821. Gradually, however, a feeling arose that the Grand Lodge should declare its independence. In consequenceNovember 1, 1828‑the Duke of Cumberland proclaimed the autonomy of the Grand Lodge of the Kingdom of Hanover and was himself elected its first Grand Master.

The year 1828 saw the accession of the Lodge at Hildesheim, Door to Virtue, No. 312, warranted by England, December 27, 176z; and new Lodges were constituted at Stade 1845, at Kassel 1849 and at Klauenthal 1851. New Statutes had been passed January 22, 1839.

At the death of William IV in 1837, Hanover became an independent kingdom and the Duke of Cumberland, Grand Master, succeeded to the vacant throne. He died in 1851 and was followed by his son, George V. In 1852‑March i9 although not a Mason, George V assumed the patronage of the Craft and, in 1857, caused himself to be initiated in the Black Bear, as the representative of all the other Lodges in the kingdom, becoming thereby an active member of each one of them.

Von Hattorf had been elected Grand Master in 1851 and, at his death, July z9, 18 5 4, was succeeded by Count Bentinck, February i, 18 5 5. In 18 5 7, however, the King expressed his intention of assuming the Grand Mastership upon the condition that the Hanoverian Lodges under foreign jurisdictions should join the i Grand Lodge of Hanover and that the Statutes should be so altered as to exclude Jews from initiation. The latter condition was sorrowfully complied with; the former was only opposed by the Zinnendorff Lodge erected at Stade in 1777, which preferred dissolution.

In the following years new Lodges were constituted‑‑i 8 5 7, at Verden ; 18 5 8, Harburg ; 1859, Leer ; 186o, Ulzen. In 1861 the number of Lodges was 22, with 2,187 members. The last Lodge was warranted in 1863 at Hameln.

In the Austro‑Prussian conflict of 1866 Hanover unfortunately espoused the losing side and suffered by annexation to Prussia. Now, inasmuch as the edict of 1798 only acknowledges three Grand Lodges in Prussia and no other Lodges but those dependent upon these three, extinction stared the Grand Lodge of Hanover in the face. Nevertheless had it at once applied for permission to rank as a fourth Grand Lodge and, had the Grand Master himself resigned, there is reason to believe that the prayer might have been granted. Hamburg and Frankfort are now Prussian, but the edict of 1798 was not enforced in their case in 1870. But resignation 152 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE formed no part of the late King's intentions ; there is every cause to conjecture that, on the contrary, the position of Grand Master entered into his political calculations.

The Deputy Grand Master Krtiger endeavoured to get Hanover constituted a fourth Grand Lodge. King George thereupon tried to impeach him in Grand Lodge‑by which body resolutions were passed‑December 8‑approving the step taken by the Deputy, but setting a limit to his future activity. Kruger resigned, as did his successor, Bodeker. The King then appointed Bokelberg. On April 17, 1867, the Grand Lodge resolved to petition the King to retire, upon which his agent, the Deputy Grand Master Bokelberg, resigned. The Grand Lodge then took matters into its own hands, and‑June 6‑17 Lodges elected Kruger Grand Master. But it was too late. On September 30 the Minister of Justice and of the Interior closed the Grand Lodge of Hanover by virtue of the edict Of 1798 and nothing remained for the subordinate Lodges but to choose their new superiors. Velzen, Goslar and Osnabruck joined the Three Globes; Btickeburg, the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; Walsrode dissolved; Cedar, in Hanover, joined the National Grand Lodge; the other 17 Lodges affiliated with the Grand Lodge Royal York and were of material weight in carrying the more liberal Constitutions of that Grand Lodge in 1872.

II. Mother-Lodge of Schlesia in Glogau

This was a Grand Lodge under the Strict Observance. On May 20, 1765, von Hund constituted a Mother‑Lodge at Nistiz, with the name of Celestial Sphere of Gold. It was removed in 1772 to Gross‑Osten and warranted in 1772 a Lodge at Glogau. In 1779 the Mother‑Lodge removed to Glogau as the Grand Lodge of Silesia. It constituted some other Lodges, but both the Grand Lodge and its daughters closed on June 24, 1794, after the downfall of the Strict Observance and the death of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick.

III. Mother-Lodge for the Provinces of East and West Prussia an Lithuania at Koenigsberg

This also was a Strict Observance Grand Lodge. The oldest Lodge in Konigsberg, the Three Anchors, was constituted September 1 z, 1746, dissolved in 176o and immediately reconstituted by the Three Globes, June io, 176o, as the Three Crowns. In 1769 it joined the Strict Observance and was raised to the rank of a Provincial Grand Lodge, as above, in which capacity it warranted several Lodges. In consequence of the Prussian Edict of 1798 recognizing only three Grand Lodges in that kingdom, it subsided into its former position of a daughter Lodge of the Three Globes in 1799. The Lodge is still active. In 1863 it numbered z6z ; in 1885, 312; and to‑day (1930), 459 members.

IV. Grand Lodge of the Three Keys at Ratisbon

This was in its time an important Grand Lodge, remarkable for having successfully resisted the blandishments of the Strict Observance. Its influence extended over a very large circle. In 1765 a Prince of Thurn and Taxis founded in Ratisbon a Lodge St. Charles of Constancy, which he himself dissolved in 1774. But, during those nine years, it had given birth to a second Lodge, Crescent of the Three Keys, constituted May 1, 1767. The Master of that Lodge, Schkler, who had been initiated in Amsterdam, obtained‑July I, 1768‑from Grand Master Von Botzelaar of the Netherlands, a Warrant of Constitution and immediately assumed for the Lodge the prerogatives of a Grand Lodge. It worked the Degrees of the Craft, with those of a Scots Lodge superadded, in 1770 ; the latter were, however, suppressed in 1784, so that‑considering the times‑the Lodge kept itself remarkably pure. In 1771 it warranted its first daughter, Hope, in Vienna and, during the next twenty years, Lodges in Marktseft on the Main, Munich, Passau, Ulm, Baitsch, Neusohl in Hungary, Hermannstadt in Siebenburgen, (a second) in Vienna, Gorlitz, Dresden and Hanover‑in all twelve. Schkler was Grand Master from 1771 to 1777, when he resigned; and the second Grand Master, the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, was elected in 1799. It is probable that this long interregnum was due to the ravages committed in every direction by the Strict Observance. From 1793 to 1799 the Lodge was perfectly dormant, owing to the disturbing effects of the Revolution. But it resumed activity with the new Grand Master, who, June 6, 18o6, obtained a patent from England. In this he is styled " Provincial Grand Master for Bavaria," an excusable error, Ratisbon being one of the recent acquisitions of that State; and it is indeed surprising that the Grand Lodge did not take the place now occupied by the Sun of Bayreuth. The Lodge also changed its name to Karl of the Three Keys and constituted several Lodges, for instance, Leipzig and Heidelberg. In the first decade of last century the Grand Lodge had lost all her daughters through death or desertion, but was itself strong and much respected throughout the Continent; with Sweden especially it stood on the most intimate terms from 18oi to 1823. It gradually fell into decay, but once more, about i83o, flickered up under Von Stachelhausen. On his departure from Ratisbon the Lodge died out altogether, circa 1840. A detailed account of this Lodge will be found in Latomia, vol. xxii, 1863, pp. 322‑30

V. English Provincial Grand Lodge for Brunswick at Brunswick

This Grand Lodge can hardly be said to have existed, but its short history exemplifies the unsettled state of the Craft at this period. In 1744‑February 12the Lodge Jonathan was founded and opened by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; and, on December 27, its founder, Kissleben, was appointed Permanent Deputy Grand Master. In 1762 the Lodge superadded the Rosa‑Clermont Chapter; and, in 1764, the blaster, Von Lestwitz, was appointed by England Provincial Grand Master for Brunswick (Constitutions, 1767, p. 365 ; Preston, 1812, p. 261).

But whilst the Warrant was on the road, Lestwitz and the Lodge had both deserted to the Strict Observance, so that the Provincial Grand Lodge was never erected. A minority of the Lodge, however, continued the old Lodge Jonathan; and, in the same year, Le Boeuf, in his quality of a Scots Master, established a French Lodge. These three quarrelled, so that the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick closed them all and founded two new ones, one working in French as a Mother‑Lodge, St. Charles of Concord and a German Lodge Jonathan.

This he did by virtue of a Provincial patent granted to him by England, July 5, ‑1768. The Lodges were constituted on October Io and I I, ‑1770. But before the end of the year Ferdinand had signed the Act of Strict Observance and that was the end of the second Provincial Grand Lodge of Brunswick. St. Charles of Concord was granted a place in the English registry as No. 400 in 1770 and continued on the roll until 1813 (as No. 259)‑one of many proofs that the Grand Lodge of England knew little and cared less concerning foreign affairs.

VI. Bode's Union of German Freemasonrys

In 1788‑March i‑the Directoral Lodge of the Eclectic Union at Frankfort resumed its former position as a Provincial Grand Lodge under England. This seems to have given umbrage to the Compass Lodge in Gotha, who feared or pretended to fear, that the perfect equality among the Eclectic Lodges would be violated. Their chief adviser was Bode. As he was a convert to the Illuminati and Frankfort had declared itself adverse to that sect, this circumstance may have also contributed to the ensuing events. Certain it is that the Gotha Lodge issued a circular to all German Lodges‑November 24, 1790‑signed by nine Masters " acting under the advice of a highly instructed Mason " (Bode) calling upon all Lodges to aid in forming a general Union of German Lodges on the real Eclectic principles. The Gotha Lodge was erased and that of the Three Arrows at Nurerr_berg took its part so warmly as to provoke a like result.

These were the only two Eclectic Lodges that joined Bode's Union, which in all never numbered more than ten Lodges. Bode died in 1793 and, with him, the projected union and Grand Lodge after a precarious existence of three years. The movement is of interest, as the last effort of a man who was made a Hamburg Mason in 1761, dubbed a Templar Knight in 1764, who, in 1782, first took up the idea that the Jesuits were at the bottom of all the High Degrees and finished by joining the Illuminati.

VII. Grand Orient of Baden at Mannheim

In 1778 Mannheim belonged to Bavaria and the Lodge Karl of Unity was constituted in that city‑November 28‑by the Grand Lodge Royal York. In 1783 it joined the Eclectic Union and, in 1785, was closed together with all other Bavarian Lodges. In 1803 Mannheim was made over to the Grand Duchy of Baden and, in 1805, the Lodge reopened under Karl von Dalberg. In 1806 it received a Warrant from the Grand Orient of France, accepted the modern French Rite and FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 155 changed its name to Charles of Concord. Its Chapter then declared itself a Grand Orient for the Duchy of Baden and was acknowledged as such by France on June 25, 1807.

In 1808 it was joined by the Lodge Karl of Good Hope, Heidelberg, warranted in 1807 by the Grand Lodge of Ratisbon‑which it deserted, but rejoined, in the same year. In 18ocg it constituted the Lodges Temple of Patriotic Light at Bruchsal and Karl and Stephanie at Mannheim; so that in all the Grand Orient extended its jurisdiction over three Lodges. Its Grand Master was Karl, Prince of Ysenburg. The Grand Duke, Karl Friedrich, being dead, his successor, Karl Ludwig Friedrich, issued‑February 16, 18 13 and March 7, 1814‑decrees suppressing secret societies and, with them, Freemasonry throughout his dominions. All Lodges in Baden then closed and the Craft was not allowed to reassert itself until 1845 ; but there is no longer a Grand Lodge for Baden.

VIII. Grand National Union of Baden Lodges at Carlsruhe

This Union was contemporary with the foregoing. The Karl of Unity at Carlsruhe was warranted by the Eclectic Union in 1786, closed during the Revolution from 1791 onwards and reopened in 1808. The Lodge Noble Prospect at Freiburg was warranted by the Provincial Grand Lodge for Austria at Vienna in 1784, joined the Eclectic Union in ‑1785 and was also dormant from 1793 to 1808. The Karl of Good Hope at Heidelberg was warranted by Ratisbon in 1807, joined the Grand Orient of Baden 1808 and rejoined Ratisbon the same year.

These three Lodges‑May 23, ‑18og‑erected the Grand National Union of Lodges, to be governed, not by a Grand, but by a Directoral Lodge, the Lodge exercising this function to change every three years. Lodges of each and every Ritual were eligible for the Union, except those working the French Modern Ritewhich was ceded to the Grand Orient of Baden. These two Grand Bodies subsisted side by side in perfect amity. The Heidelberg Lodge threw off a shoot in i 8og, which was constituted by the Eclectic Union and joined the Baden Union without apparently deserting Frankfort. In like manner the original Heidelberg Lodge appears to have belonged to the Ratisbon Grand Lodge and the Baden Union. In 18og the Bruchsal Lodge also joined it without deserting its Grand Orient and there is a further though somewhat undefined allusion to a Minerva Lodge at Mannheim. Its Grand Masters were successively K. F. Schilling von Canstadt and Hemeling. The Directory remained at Carlsruhe until July I, i8‑12, when it was removed to Freiburg, but in 1813‑14 the same fate of course overtook this Union, which crushed the Grand Orient of Baden.

IX. Grand Orient of Westphalia in Cassel

An English Provincial Grand Master; described in the Constitutions (1767, p. 365) as George Augustus, Baron of Hammerstein, was appointed by Earl Ferrers ‑1762‑4‑for Westphalia, but he does not appear to have exerted himself to any purpose, for nothing more is known of him.

In the electorate of Hesse‑Cassel the first Lodge was constituted at Marburg in 1743 and others soon followed. The Strict Observance in due course swamped the Craft and, on its subsidence, the preponderating influence was that of the Grand Lodge Royal York. In 1794, however, the Elector suppressed all the Lodges in his dominions. In 1807 the Electorate and the city of Cassel became the centre of Napoleon's kingdom of Westphalia, at the head of which he placed his brother Jerome.

The first Lodge to revive, Frederick of Friendship, took the name of Jerome Napoleon of Fidelity and, in order to avoid falling under a French jurisdiction, erected a Grand Orient of the Kingdom of Westphalia, February io, i8o8. This was done at the instigation of Count Simeon, Jerome's chief minister, himself an assistant Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. The king was Grand Master and Simeon his Deputy; but all the other officers were Germans. The utmost toleration prevailed and Lodges under other jurisdictions were not compelled to affiliate; any Ritual was permitted and Lodges enjoyed complete freedom from interference in their private affairs. Three new Lodges appear to have been constituted in Cassel (18o8‑13), and the following joined :‑Miinden, Alfeld, Hildesheim, Einbeck, Goslar, Osterode, Heiligenstadt, Eschwege, Gottingen, Nordhausen, Celle, Marburg, Hanover (a new French one), Helmstedt, Magdeburg, etc. In 1813 the kingdom of Westphalia disappeared and with it the Grand Orient.

X. Grand Lodge of Hessen-Cassel in Cassel

was revived. Von Bardeleben succeeded in obtaining a repeal of this obnoxious decree, but only on the condition that the Lodges would submit to the Grand Lodge Royal York, under an intermediate Provincial Grand Lodge for the Electorate, with Bardeleben as the Provincial Grand Master. Accordingly two Lodges at Cassel and one at Eschwege constituted‑May z6, 18I4‑the Provincial Grand Lodge desired by the Elector and placed themselves under the Royal York of Berlin. In 1817, however, this Provincial Grand Lodge declared its independence under the title of Mother Grand Lodge of the Electorate of Hesse and the Elector William II on his accession, promised it his protection. Besides the three already mentioned, the following at Marburg, Rinteln, Hanau, Ziegenhain, Hersfeld, Neutershausen ; in all, nine Lodges formed part of this jurisdiction. But, on July icy, 18z4, an edict of the Elector once more suppressed and interdicted the Lodges and, in spite of all petitions to the contrary, they remained forbidden and closed until the events of 1866 caused the Electorate to be incorporated with Prussia.

Other Masonic Unions not classed as Grand Lodges

I. Grand Union of Freemasons (Fessler's)

It will be remembered that in 1799 and 18oo both Fessler and Schroeder visited Hanover and, about the same time, these two ardent reformers made each other's acquaintance. Early in 1801 Fessler attempted to strengthen the hands of FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 157 the leading supporters of pure Freemasonry by drawing closer the bonds of union between the Provincial Grand Lodges for Hamburg and Hanover and the Grand Lodge Royal York of Berlin. On August 20, 18oi, a tripartite treaty was concluded between these bodies, entitled Magnum Foedus Latomorum, providing for mutual representation, communication of all Minutes and for a select circle in each Grand Lodge for the free imparting to one another of all ritualistic and historic knowledge.

Resolutions were adopted against the use of any of the old‑fashioned High Degrees and provision was made for the admission to the Union of other Grand Lodges. Frankfort was invited to join the Union. But at this time the Provincial Grand Lodge was dormant and wished to refer the matter to England before deciding. Deceived by this condition of affairs, the Royal York warranted a Lodge‑Socrates‑in Frankfort, December 4, 18oi and to the friction to which this gave rise, the absence of a reply from London and the renewed dormancy of the Provincial Grand Lodge for Frankfort in 1803‑5, must be ascribed the failure on the latter's part to affiliate with the Union. Following this came the French occupation of Berlin and Hanover, thus the Union gradually lost its hold on the Lodges and is now confined to a mutual representation in Grand Lodge, which, however, has extended to all the other Grand Lodges of Germany.

II. The Correspondence Bureau

In most German Lodges two secretaries divide the work between them, one attending to the Minutes and records, the other conducting the correspondence, both with members and with the Lodges in fraternal alliance. It is usual for the latter to forward, in the summer, to every member and allied Lodge a so‑called St. John's letter, detailing the events of the past twelve months, giving a list of present members. In some cases allied Lodges undertake a regular exchange of their respective Minutes. As the parties to these arrangements increased in number, the work became more onerous and Dr. Lechner of the Baldwin Lodge, Leipzig, formed a plan to facilitate matters, which was communicated to the Lodges by circular in 1831. According to this scheme the Baldwin Lodge was to act as a central point under a special officer charged to receive proceedings from all quarters, and to distribute them to all corresponding members. Forty‑two Lodges joined the Association at the outset.

III. Union of the Three Grand Lodges of Berlin

A Union, composed of the Grand and Deputy Grand Masters of these three Grand Lodges, was founded in i 8 io to deliberate on matters of common interest. It had been preceded by a joint monthly committee meeting, established in 1807. Unfortunately in 1823 the Grand Lodge of Hamburg and the National Grand Lodge quarrelled about the Lodge at Rostock. Hamburg brought its case before the Union through the good offices of the Grand Lodge Royal York. This produced very strained relations and the Union‑by common consent‑quietly came to an end.

IV. + V. missing

VI. German Grand Lodges' Union

This Union worked to great advantage for the Craft and, in the absence of an impossible General Grand Lodge, served to maintain a close bond between every system in the Fatherland and to preserve or inaugurate a common line of conduct in external affairs.

VII. Union of German Freemasons

This was a purely deliberative and literary society, composed of individual Masons meeting yearly at various cities. It was founded in 1861 and at first met with strenuous opposition from some of the Grand Lodges, so that in .1867 it only numbered 309 members. It has, however, formed a valuable library and museum at Leipzig and its official organ is the Leipzig Bauhiitte. Its influence has grown yearly and, in .1878, it numbered I,5o9 active and 31 corresponding, members.

Although the exigencies of space forbid more than a passing allusion to many subjects of deep interest to our antiquaries, but lying on the extreme border line of history, there is one upon which‑at this stage of our inquiry‑some general observations will not be out of place.

Germany (including Austria and Switzerland) excels all other countries, both in the affluence of its Masonic literature and in the profundity of research which has characterized the labours of so many gifted historians of the Craft. The earliest efforts of German Masonic writers‑translations of the English Constitutions, orations and didactic pieces‑evince both diligence and accuracy. Thence, by a gradual transition‑the publication of the Constitutions of many other Grand (and private) Lodges, of songs and poems remarkable for beauty of thought and diction‑we are brought to a higher sphere of intellectual labour and find in the literature of the Craft, the noblest moral teaching, accompanied by very learned and ingenious reflections on both the origin and objects of our Society.

Lessing‑" the father of German criticism "‑known to Masonic readers by his Ernest and Falk, 1778 and Nathan the Whise, 1779‑a noble plea for toleration and a rational religion‑was followed by Vogel, Letters on Freemasonry, 1783‑5 ; Albrecht, Materials for a Critical History, 1792 ; Schroeder, Materials for the En gbund, 18oz ; Schneider, Constitutions of Archimedes, etc., 1803 ; Fessler, Attempts at a Critical History, etc., I8oI‑7 ; Krause, The Three Oldest Masonic Documents, 18Io ; Mossdorf, Addresses to Thoughtful Masons, 1818 ; Heldmann, The Three Oldest Historical Documents of German Masonry, 1819 ; Nettlebladt, History of Masonic Systems, circa 1836 ; O'Etzel, History of the Three Globes, 1840 ; Kloss, Annals of the Eclectic Union, I 84z‑Freemasonry in its True Significance, 1846‑Freemasonry in Great Britain, 1848‑and in France, 185z ; Fallou, The Mysteries of Freemasonry, 1848 ; Winzer, The German Brotherhoods, 1859 ; Keller, History of the Eclectic Union, 1857Of Masonry in Germany, 1859; Findel, History of Freemasonry, I 861‑z ; and Paul, History of the Eclectic Union, 1883. The list might be extended and both Herder and Goethe are to be classed among " writers of the Craft." German periodical literature devoted to the Craft began in 1776‑9 with Bode's Almanach, subsequently there appeared (inter alia) the Freemasons' Library, 17781803 ; Vienna Journal for Masons, 1784‑6 ; Kothener Annual, 1798‑1805 ; Meissner's Pocket‑Book, 1801‑17 ; Altenburg Journal, 1804, continued as Fisher's Zeitschrift and Neueste Zeitschrift ; Nettlebladt's Calendars for the Provincial Grand Lodge of Mecklenburg," 1821‑46; but above all, the matchless Latomia, commenced by Meissner and Merzdorf in 1842, continued to 1873. The most prominent Masonic journal in Germany at the present date is the Bauhiitte, begun in 1858. Works of especial merit are Gidicke's Lexicon, 1818 but chiefly on account of its being the first of its kind; Kloss's Bibliography, 1844, a monument of research; and the Handbook 1863‑79‑or the second edition of Lenning's Encyclopadia, edited by Mossdorf in 1822‑8. No other Masonic work of a similar character can pretend to rival the Handbuch der Freimaurerei in the extent, variety and accuracy of its information.

In 1931 there were in Germany nine Grand Lodges : i. The Sun at Bayreuth, with 45 Lodges and 4,ooo Brethren, Hermann Kolbein, Grand Master. 2. The Grand National Mother‑Lodge at Berlin, 179 Lodges, 21,3oo Brethren, Dr. Karl Habicht, Grand Master. 3. The Grand Landesloge of Germany in Berlin, with 54 St. Andrew's and 177 St. John's Lodges, zi,oo5 Brethren, Dr. Eugen Miillendorff, Grand Master. 4. The Grand Lodge of Prussia in Berlin, io8 Lodges, 11,422 Brethren, Dr. Otto Zimmer, Grand Master. 5. The Grand Lodge Zur Eintracht in Darmstadt, io Lodges, 896 Brethren, Karl Kahlert, Grand Master. 6. Grand Lodge of Saxony in Dresden, 45 Lodges, 7,344 Brethren, Gotthold Anders, Grand Master. 7. Grand Mother‑Lodge of the Eclectic Union at Frankfort, 26 Lodges, 3,2oo Brethren, Ludwig Riess, Grand Master. 8. Grand Lodge of Hamburg, 54 Lodges, 5,ooo Brethren, Richard Brose, Grand Master. 9. Grand Lodge of German Brotherhood at Leipzig, io Lodges, 1,935 Brethren, Paul Mensdorf, Grand Master.

A further Grand Lodge‑the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany‑was founded at Hamburg, on July 27, 1930, by eight Lodges. This Grand Lodge was brought into being by the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. It claims to have been founded in accordance with the basic principles laid down by the Grand Lodge of England.

In 1932, the Hitler government suppressed all Masonic activity in Germany, and all Lodges and Grand Lodges either ceased to exist or else divested themselves of Masonic characteristics and activity.

See also