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En: The Stonemasons of Germany 2

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Who shall he superior Judges in this Craft

XXXVII.

Marx Schan, workmaster of the high foundation of Our dear Lady at Strassburg, and all his successors.

This district belongs to Strassburg

XXXVIII.

All the country above the Moselle, and Franconia as far as the Thuringian Forest, and Babenberg as far as the Bishopric of Eichstatten, and from Eichstatten to Ulm, from Ulm to Augsburg including Augsburg, from Augsburg to the Adelberg, and as far as Italy, the Lands of Misnia, Hesse, and Swabia, These shall be obedient to these Ordinances.

This district belongs to Vienna

XXXIX.

To the workmaster of the building of St. Stephen at Vienna belongs to Lampach, Styria, Werkhausen, Hungary, and the Danube downward.

This district belongs to Cologne

XL.

To the workmaster of the foundation at Cologne and to all his successors, to him shall be obedient in a like manner and belong to the remaining territory downward, whatever work and lodges there be in it, who are of this guild, or may hereafter join it.

This district belongs to Zurich

XLL.

Bern, Bale, Lucern, Schaffhausen, St. Gall, etc., and all work at this time in the Confederacy, or hereafter to arise, shall be obedient to the master at Zurich.

Ordinances of the Wardens and Fellows of the Stonemastons' Craft

XLII.

Every warden shall hold his master in honor, be willing and obedient unto him, according to the rule of masonry, and obey him with undivided fidelity, as is meet and of ancient usage. And a fellow shall also do likewise.

Who wish to travel, how he shall take his leave

XLIII.

And when it behoves a fellow to travel farther, he shall part from his master lodge and hostelrie in such wise as to remain indebted to no one, and that no man have any grievance against him, as is meet.

How the Fellows shall be obedient unto the Masters and Wardens

XLIV.

A travelling fellow, in whatever lodge he may be employed, shall be obedient to his master and warden, according to the rule and ancient usage of masonry, and shall also keep all the regulations and privileges which are of ancient usage in the said lodge.

No Fellow shall revile his Master's Work

XLV.

And a fellow shall not revile his master's work, either secretly or openly, in any wise; unless it be that the master infringe or act contrary to these Ordinances; that may any one say of another.

No Fellow to be employed who lives in adultery

XLVI.

No master or craftsman shall employ any fellow who consorts with a woman in adultery, or who openly lives a dishonorable life with women, or who goes not to the holy communion according to Christian discipline, or one who is so foolish as to game away his clothing.

If a Fellow want only takes leave

XLVII.

If any fellow should wantonly take leave from a head lodge, or from any other lodge, the master and fellows of the said lodge shall not let him depart unpunished.

Not to discharge except on a pay evening

XLVIII.

Should it be that a craftsman or workmaster have a travelling fellow in his employment, and wish to discharge him, he shall not discharge him except of a Saturday or pay evening, that he may know how to travel on the morrow; unless he have given cause of offence. The same shall also be done by a fellow, if he demand his discharge.

To ask none for employment except the Master or Warden

XLIX.

And no fellow shall ask any one else in the lodge for employment, except the master on the work or the warden: neither secretly nor openly, without their consent.

To make no League

L.

Likewise the fellows shall in the future make no more mutinies or conspiracies to leave any employ collectively, and thus delay a building; for up to the present the profits of our brotherhood have come from the Lords and cities almost entirely; but should a master behave otherwise than right in any case, he shall be summoned before the craft, and submit to its judgment. And in case of a pending judgment no such master shall be avoided of his fellows until the matter be adjudged, unless it be that such a one be disobedient to the judgment; in that case he may well be left to go idle.

Not to leave the Lodge without permission

LI.

No fellow shall go out from the lodge without leave, or if he go to his broth or any other meal, remain out without leave; nor shall any make Holy Monday. If any one do so, he shall stand to punishment by the master and fellows, and the master shall have power to discharge him in the week when he will.

No more Beatings

LII.

And in future, in no lodge, no matter for what cause, shall any one be beaten without the knowledge and consent of the workmaster. And there shall not in any employment or elsewhere, anything be judged or heard by either masters or fellows, without the superior workmaster's knowledge and consent in the judgment of the penalty.

Not to run together in the Lodge

LIII.

And in the future the fellows shall wait in the lodge at their piece of stone, and no longer run together to chatter, so that the Lords be not hindered in their work.

What an Apprentice shall vow to the Craft when he has served his time and is declared free

LIV.

In the first place, every apprentice when he has served his time, and is declared free, shall promise the craft, on his truth and honor, in lieu of oath, under pain of losing his right to practise masonry, that he will disclose or communicate tho mason's greeting and grip to no one, except to him to whom he may justly communicate it; and also that he will write nothing thereof.

Secondly, He shall promise as aforesaid, to be obedient to the craft of masonry, in all things concerning the craft, and if he should be sentenced by the craft he shall conform wholly to such sentence, and yield obedience thereto.

Thirdly, He shall promise not to weaken but to strengthen the craft, so far as his means may extend.

Fourthly, No one shall stand by another to hew stones who is not honestly of the craft; and no master shall employ any one to hew stones who is not a true stonemason, unless it be previously permitted to him of a whole craft. '

This curiouis expression probably means, " Of all the members of the craft in his neighborhood."

LV.

And no one shall alter of his own Avill and power his mark which has been granted and lent him by a craft;' but if he ever desire to alter it he shall only do it with the knowledge, will, and approval of a whole craft.

LVI.

And every master, having aforesaid apprentices, shall earnestly enjoin and invite each one when he has thus completed the above-written five years to become a brother, by the oath which each one has taken to the craft and is offered to each.

No Apprentice to he made a Warden

LVII.

No craftsman or master shall appoint as warden any one of his apprentices whom he has taken from his rough state, who is still in his years of apprenticeship.

LVIII.

And no craftsman or master shall appoint as warden any apprentice whom he has taken from his rough state to apprentice, even if he have served his years of apprenticeship, unless he have also travelled for one year.

Ordinances of the Apprentices

LIX.

Whosoever, henceforth, shall accept an apprentice, shall not accept him for a less security than twenty florins, and he shall lodge at least such security with one who is a resident of such placg, in order that if the master die before the apprentice has served his time,- the apprentice may serve the craft with some other true master, and complete the full term of five years. But if he complete them not he shall forfeit the twenty florins to a craft for the craft's expenses and loss, in the same manner as he would be indebted to the master if he left him without cause during his apprenticeship; in order that the apprentices may the more readily remain and become true stonemasons.

LX.

And no craftsman shall knowingly accept an apprentice of illegitimate birth, but shall have made earnest inquiries before accepting him, and shall ask the apprentice on his truth whether his father and mother have lived together in wedlock.

LXI.

And it is also decreed that no craftsman shall accept an apprentice in the rough otherwise than for five years, and henceforth none shall pay any money for the time which he has not served, but shall completely serve his five years. Nevertheless, what has here- tofore been done, that shall so remain, but in the future it shall only be done as aforesaid.

LXII.

And a father, being himself a mason, shall have power to bind one or more of his sons for five years and to complete their instruction, but only in the presence of other stonemasons; and such an apprentice shall not be under fourteen years of age.

LXIII.

If any one has served for any time a mason who is not a stonemason, that time shall not count, or be deducted from any apprentice's five years; but for five years shall he serve a stonemason, as aforesaid.

LXIV.

And henceforth no master shall accept a rough apprentice or declare him free, except in the presence of a craft, and the fellows who are at that time employed in the lodge, in order that if variances arise they may the more easily be arranged.

LXV.

And every apprentice shall promise the craft, on his truth and honor, to hold his master, during the five years that he is bound to him, in all due obedience, leal service, truth, and faith, to further his advantage and avert his loss, so far as he may or can, without any exception or reservation.

LXVI.

And the master, on his part, shall give his apprentice, during said five years, according to ancient usage and custom of the craft, ten florins, namely, every year two florins, as his Avages, besides his keep and maintenance.

LXVII.

He shall also promise to be true and obedient to a worthy craft in all things concerning the craft, and if he should fall into variance or discord with his master or any other stonemason, or craft apprentice, to lay all matters connected therewith before a craft to be adjudged and reconciled, that in all things, for good or ill, he may obtain justice and judgment according to craft usage, and not to appeal against the sentence thus pronounced, but to strictly submit himself thereto.

LXVIII.

Furthermore, nothing shall be withheld from any one w^ho has been accepted and pronounced free, but whatever ought to be told or read to him, that shall he be told and communicated, in order that none may excuse himself, or complain that, had he pre- viously known thereof, he would not have joined the craft.

LXIX.

And in every case two carved tickets [a system of " tally "] of a like import shall be prepared, of which one shall be deposited with the lodge, the other with the security, in order that each side may know how to demean himself.

LXX.

And every master who accepts an apprentice shall pay to the craft not more than five bohemians or blapperts. In like manner, an apprentice, when he has been declared [literally "knocked"] free, shall be indebted to the craft one florin, and shall not be required to give more. And that may be expended [literally consumed, " spent in drink," etc. ], in witness thereof, by those who are present at the giving of the freedom.

LXXI.

And no master shall extend the [preliminary] trial of a rough apprentice, who is old enough according to the articles, for a longer space than fourteen days, unless he be his son, or the master have a righteous cause for delay, on account of the security, for instance, and seek nothing wrong thereby.

When any one leaves during his Apprenticeship

LXXII.

And should it happen that an apprentice leave his master during his years of apprenticeship, without righteous cause, and serve him not his full time, no master shall employ such apprentice. And none shall stand by him, or have fellowship with him in any wise, until he shall have served his years honorably with the master whom he left, and have made full atonement, and bring information thereof from his master as is aforesaid. And no apprentice shall ransom himself from his master unless he enter into wedlock with his master's consent, or have other righteous cause that compels him or his master thereto, and it shall take place with the knowledge of the brotherhood, according to the judgment of the stonemasons.

Not to entice away an Apprentice

LXXIII.

And no master or fellow, whatever his name, shall entice or lead away any apprentice from him who has bound him, or received him from elsewhere into his employment, unless ba \the apprentices have previously complied with hie master's wish, in order that he may leave him without any complaint. But should such occur, he shall be summoned before the craft and punished.

These are the Names of the Masters and Fellows who, at Strasshurg and Basle, unanimously helped to Establish, Order, Reneio, and Confirm, the aforewritten Ordinances and Articles.

Marx Schan, workmaster of the High Foundation, Strassburg; Hans Frewler, city workmaster of the same place; Jacob Noggi, city master at Zurich; Georg Luthener, citymaster at Spiers; Hans Lorner, city master at Frankfurt; Simon Zwiezel, city master at Augsburg; Nicholas of Lindau, on the part of Frederick, city master at Ulm; Conrad Herman, city master at Leipzig; Master Stephen Ziegler, master builder at Schletstatt; Hans ITlberger, city master at Schletstatt; Balthasar Wolff, workmaster at Heilbronn; Wolffgang Loscher, city master at Nürnberg; Gilg Grassenberger, city master at Eegensburg; Hans Bernhart, city master at Colmar; Nicolas Stattner, city master at Heidelberg; George Kanpff, city master on the foundation at Freyburg; Hans Lacher, city master at Basle; Peter Hildebraudt, city master at Lindau; Blesy Berwart, workmaster at Stuttgart; Master Martin Berwart of Brackenheim; Master Jacob Dieter of Landau; Master Conrad Heckner of Weissenburg; Master Lorenz Klein of Hanau; Master Werner Branner of Sennen; Master Michael Ulrich of Colmar; Master Mathew Gasser of Werde; Master Mathew Gerber of Basle; Master Sebastian Keiilfer of Stuttgart; Hans Han of Brunnenfels, delegate from Mayence; Adolff Biseneck, delegate from Blassenburg; Master Christopher Stromeyer of Saarbrücken; Master Eudolph Knatscher of Frankfurt; Master Hans Meyer of Berne; Master Frederic Kessler of Weilburg; Pangratz Seyle of Landau; Thomas Fideler of Dresden, from Weyer; Master Caspar Erles, atEtlingen; Master Nicholas Hensslerof Stein; Master Wolff Vogle of St. Gall; Master Jacob Alther of Eoschach; Master Hans Weysskopff of Merseburg; Master Hans Ortlin of Zell; Master Melchior Schertzinger of Schaffhausen; Master George Maurer of Constance; Master Michael AVummen of Biel; Master Veltin Gessler of Basle; Master Albrecht Geyss of Bruck; Master Hans Euch of Freiburg; Master Hans Schwerter of Zurich; Master Mathew Lang of AVeltkirch; Master Hans Zipfle; Master Laurence Degen; Master Daniel Heintz; Master Hans Dagsperger; Master Henry Eutzberger; Conrad Giirtler; Jacob of Andhiu; Hans of Piitengen; 'Lux Kienheim; Adolff Wildermeier; Hans Hertz; Wolff of Ipffhoffen; '^ Claus Nasser; 'Lux Furnkom: Henry of Heidelburg; Hans Beck of Mayence; Adam Zwick; Hans of Ingolstadt; Hans Kien; Hans Biichs of Hanau; Conrad Krauss.

The Fellows.

Andrew of Biirn; Wolff Geiger of Schaffhausen; Nicholas of Biseneck; Heinricli oi Cassel; George of Sinssen; George Suterof Langenargen; Jacob Werckwiler of Offenbnrg; Hans Rudolff of Rotenburg; Lenhart Frumm of Halle, in Suabia; Peter Liitzel of Siburg [p)'obabl}/ Siegenburg in Bavaria]; Balthasar Koller of Grossen Bodmen; Lawrence Stein- berger of Neuburg; Peter Brack of Geneva; Jost Hussler of Landau; Mathew Muss of Hanau; Hans Isenman of Bressmiel; Eoland Miinch of Sesserich; Jacob of Burn; Nicholas Uiissler

The Christian names are mainly represented above by their English equivalents; hut Hans, short for Johan (John), is so characteristically German that it has been left untranslated. Jacob may either mean James or Jacob, as in Germany they have only one name for our two. The names of towns have been as far as possible modernized.

of Arlen; George of Landsperg; Jiicob liiltebrancl of Eotenburg; Jacob of Rappoldsweiler; Velten Donnecker of Strassburg; Hans Decker of Netzerbolchen; Frederick Baltz of Wachenheim; Michael of Bisantz; Michael Extlin of Strassburg; Thomas Weybel of Strassburg; Hans Blum of Strassburg; Claude Jackome of Lausanne.

At the request of Mr. Heldmann of Berlin, I testify that, as far as I can judge, after an examination of the statutes of the stonemason brotherhood at Strassburg of the year 15G3, placed before me by Professor Heldmann, this copy is a literal transcript of the printed book presented to me.

6th March 1819.

{^Sigmdl Eggimaist, Notary,

Member of Lodge zur Hoffnung, in Berne.

These Statutes and Ordinances are in a great measure a repetition of those of 1459:; dijffering merely in orthography, as might be expected, from the interval of time that sepa- rates the two codes, and here and there in some slight shade of expression. They are, however, arranged with a greater regard to order, and omit all references to religious ob- servances of a denominational character, merely insisting on a due observance of Christian discipline. The Reformation will naturally account for this. The paragraphs I. to XIX., XXIL, XXVL to XXXV., XXXVIL to XLIX., LVIIL, LX., LXL, LXIIL, LXXIL are all to be found in the 1459 code at various places. Of these, however, VII, and VIII. allow the master rather more latitude than the original; and the concluding sentence of X. is a new proviso. Nos. XII., XIII. , XIV. are identical in both codes, but have hitherto been wrongly translated, and misunderstood, even by German writers, as will be shown further on. In XXVI. the term of engagement has been reduced from two years to one year. In XXXI. the masters' contribution has been reduced from four to two blapparts, but that of the fellows raised from four to five blapparts. In No. XXXV. the concluding sentence is new. In XXXVI. the penalty for persistent contumacy is deprivation of work; but in the code of 1459 it is provided, " that he may be brought before the ecclesiastical or civil courts." In paragraph XXXVIII. of the new code, the district belonging to Strassburg no longer includes Thuringia, Saxony, Frankfort; whence we may probably infer that these lands constituted a fifth district under a new chief lodge, possibly Dresden, although the fact is nowhere noted; but as will appear later on, precisely these districts held a meet- ing on their own account in 1462. In XLI. we find the Swiss chief lodge transferred from Berne to Zurich. In XL VII. the penalty for non-compliance was originally "not to seek employment in the said lodge for a year to come;" in 1563 the masons content themselves with providing that " he shall not depart unpunished." In the original of LXL we merely find it decreed that the term of apprenticeship shall be five years; but from the law being made non-retrospective, it is evident that meauAvhile it had been violated.

In the original of LXIIL it was provided that a youth who had learned of a common mason, might acquire the rights of a stonemason by serving an extra three years only. As this concession is withdrawn in 1563 it is probable that it had acted unfavorably to the trade interests of the stonemasons.

Paragraphs XX., XXL, XXIIL, XXIV., XXV., XXXVL, L. to LVIL, LTX., LXIL are all new in 1563. Also from LXIV. to the end, with the exception of LXXIL

We also find that a few paragraphs of the 1459 Ordinances are totally omitted in 1563.

These principally provide for divine worship, the singing of masses for the departed, and the return of the hook and box to Strassburg, shoiild a master's building be completed, and he have no further employment for his fellows. One of the omitted Ordinances is, however, curious; and to render our review complete I now insert it here: —

" Item. Whoever desires to enter this fraternity shall promise ever to keep steadfastly all these articles hereinbefore and hereafter Avritten in this book; except our gracious lord the Emperor or the king, princes, lords, or any other nobles, by force or right should be opposed to his belonging to the fraternity; that shall be a sufficient excuse; so that there be no harm therein. But for what he is indebted to the fraternity, he shall come to an agreement thereon with the craftsmen who are in the fraternity.^'

This is rather suggestive of a practice not uncommon at the present day — of masters preferring to employ non-union men.

The 15G3 code of Ordinances is the latest relating to the German stonemasons that has come to light; it was supplied in printed folio form to all large works, and denominated Brother-book. AVe may fairly presume that it continued to regu- late their trade until quite recent times, with the exception of the supremacy of the Strassburg lodge; of which more anon. It hardly, however, suffices to fill up the details in the picture of the Steinmetzen which it is our purpose to draw; a careful study will show that it only treats of the subject in broad outline. We still require something in -the nature of a copy of by-laws, in order to penetrate into the mysteries of mediaeval lodge life, and this we happily find in a code of Ordinances drawn up in 14C2. Stieglitz' discovered this code in manuscript form, in the stonemasons' lodge at Eochlitz (in Saxony, on the Mulde), and published it in 1829. It has since been republished in German as an appendix to Fort's work, but no English translation has yet appeared. The invocation to the Trin- ity and the four crowned martyrs, in the introduction, resembles the 1459 Ordinances, and we gather from the preamble, that the Strassburg masters had sent a copy of their Statutes to the masons' lodges in North Germany, in view of confirmation. The list of signatures in 1459, shows that these were not represented at Ratisbon and Strassburg, although their territory was made directly dependent on Strassburg. The North German masters expressly declare their adhesion to this code, and complete the work by enlarging on the various paragraphs in a separate document, for the use of their separate lodges, in order that the original book may remain intact and well preserved. And they expressly declare that these articles (wliich are not new or in opposition to the 1459 Ordinances, but merely elucidatory thereof) are drawn up from the ancient landmarks attributable to the holy martyrs. How, therefore. Fort could have fallen into the error of calling the masters and fellows, who met at Torgau (in Saxony, on the Elbe), dissenters and protesters, is perfectly incompre- hensible, lie not only does so, but implies that the 1459 Ordinances departed from the old landmarks, and states that the masters at Torgau indignantly protested, and even cites passages of the preamble in confirmation; which, however, prove quite the contrary.^ Indeed we have documentary proof ' that as late as 1725 the lodge at Eochlitz acknowledged the supremacy of the Strassburg lodge (although this was contrary to the laws of the realm), by paying a trifling yearly tribute, and received from Strassburg a copy of the Brother-book

  • C. L. Stieglitz, Tiber die Kirche der Heiligen Kunigunde zvi Rochlitz.

^ Fort, The Early Histoi-y and Antiquities of Freemasonry, pp. 147-177. Fallou first launches this theory, p. 210, and Steinbi^enner follows him, p. G6.

(1563). It is true — between Eochlitz and Strassburg — there was an intermediate cliief lodge, that of Dresden — ^but this does not affect the question. As already remarked, the articles of the 1462 code, in which Stieglitz's plan of numeration has been adopted, will be referred to under the ordinary figures, in contradistinction to those of the 1563 code which are distinguished by Eoman numerals.

THE TORGAU ORDINAISTCES OF 1462.

Concerning the loorsliipful Masters of Stonemasons of the Craft, the Wardens and

the Fellows of the Craft.

All Articles and Statutes as they are written in the Book; how each and every one in his conduct and station in the craft shall demean himself, both here in Zwdckau and else- v-'here in all lands; as in the Book, so stands hereafter written, each article separately.

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, in the name of the blessed Virgin Mary, and in honor of the four crowned martp's, we workmasters of the stonemasons make known: To all princes and lords, cities and burgers, and also peasants, of whatsoever rank they be, of the Church or of the world, that the several workmasters in the Oberland have assembled on two days at Eegenspurgk and at Strasburgk, and have beheld such great evil and disorders in the work, and failings done in all lands of master, wardens, and fellows, therefore have they carefully sent into this land a book of the Ordi- nances and rules, and do exhort us therein, by the holy oath which we have sworn unto ma- sonry, to accept and confirm these Ordinances in this land according to usage, as this Book clearly points out. This have we done, workmasters in all these lands of Meydeburgk and Halberstat, Hildeszheim and Mullburgk and Merseburgk, and at Meihssen, Voitlandt, Dur- ingen, Hartzlandt, the majority of us being present together, or our wardens on our part having full power, on the two days of St. Bartholomew and St. Michael at Torgau; as is usually written, after the birth of our dear Lord Christ, and in the one thousand four hundred and sixty-second year, have we confirmed the regulations of the Book and the contents thereof, and are at one therewith, and thereto have sworn by the saints.

These Articles are to be maintained in all lands, far and wide, be they of the Church or of the world, and we have enjoined upon all judges and overmasters to rule by such and to hold it in high esteem according to the usages and necessities of the land, and to keep watch over all that concerns masonry and buildings, and concerns not states nor cities; and to adjudge penalties in all matters relating to masonry; and it shall be done with consent of the lords who are the inheritors of the land, and to help the right. Therefore have we drawn up divers articles from the Book for the general good, and the Book shall remain in high honor in such places as we shall deposit it every year; and there will we hear once a year if any offence have been committed against master builders or fellows, that such be adjudged and atoned, and also if the lords of states, be' they spiritual or temporal, have an / cause of complaint as regards their buildings; and they shall submit them to such crafts- men as are chosen to be chief masters [literally Overinaster] in writing or by speech, and they shall be heard according to builders' usage. Therefore shall the overmasters that arc there, and have taken the oath and have summoned them on the yearly day, whenever it be, give them hearing as is customary, for the sake of the building; and if the lords suffer any loss, make good such loss according to the judgment of the masters; but if he come not and answer not for himself, so shall he be proscribed and lay down all rule over his fellows, and none shall esteem or hold him true, nor shall he be true man.

And we before-mentioned masters, wardens, and fellows have taken and drawn up from the Book for brevity, divers Ordinances that are obligatory on all workmasters in authority and fellows; that the real Book remain intact, and be only read there when we hold our yearly assembly.

And when the lords will not have it so, then shall it not be so; and what the lords will not have, that shall be left undone of all such articles as are not of necessity, and the masters in such lands are not bound to enforce, according to their oath, such articles as contents of the Book of the craft; to declare Avhat shall be done for the service of God, and also for sustenance, this is not of necessity to write now; every master knows this well who has formerly heard it.

And all these articles have been drawn up from the letter of the ancient lodge rights, that were instituted by the holy worthy crowned martyrs, by name Claudius, and Chris- torius, and Significamus, to the honor and praise of the Holy Trinity and Mary the Queen of Heaven.

1. Therefore have we made divers rules and statutes with the help of God. And every master shall on all acknowledged fasts cause four masses to be said.

And on St. Peter's Day, when he was raised at Antioch, shall he also cause four masses to be said.

And the first mass of the Holy Trinity, the other of our dear Lady, the third of the four crowned martyrs, the fourth for all who have died in the guild, and for all who help our craft and labor therein.

2. And the other masters shall also cause four masses to be said every feast of our Lady, one for each of the aforesaid souls, and the money wherewith he pays for the mass, the same money shall he take from the box, and the remainder shall he give to the craft box.

And for God's service shall every master of a work, be it great or small, give on each fast of our Lady one old groat.

And every fellow shall give every week to the box one penny for God's service.

3. And furthermore, no master shall undertake a work unless he have proved himself such to the craft, that the craftsmen be protected.

4. And should there appear a master that has not previously worked as master, then shall he have twain proven masters to speak for him, that he may be placed at, the head of the work, and thus shall he be accepted.

5. And where it is intended to raise new and stately buildings, then shall the lords of the work choose them a master whomsoever they will, and are enjoined to take two or four workmasters, and shall inquire of them on their oath which they have sworn to the guild whether the master be truly able to undertake the work.

6. For, if lords or cities appoint one who has not formerly undertaken such work, for stately buildings and take not craftsmen, and loss occur thereby, thereof shall nor master nor fellows judge, neither punish.

7. And no master shall undertake a work unless he be able to accomplish it; and should it be that he fail herein, it is for the lords of the work to restrain him, and also for us craftsmen. And that must he rue with one and twenty pounds of wax, and to the lord must he make good the loss.

8. And every one shall keep liis time according to the ancient traditionary nsages of the land; if he do that he is free, and even if he do it not with counsel, according to the usages of the land and the craft.

9. And no master shall diminish or reduce the pay.

10. And every master shall be upright in all things. He shall incite neither warden nor fellow nor apprentice to evil, nor to aught whence harm may arise.

11. And every master shall keep his lodge free of all strife, yea, his lodge shall he keep pure as the seat of justice.

12. And no master shall bear false witness in his lodge, neither shall he defile it in any manner.

13. Therefore shall no master allow a harlot to enter his lodge, but if any one have aught to commune with her he shall depart from the place of labor so far as one may cast a gavel.

14. If other masters learn thereof, they shall fine him for each offence in five pounds of wax.

15. Natheless, it is not for the fellows to fine any master, but they are to withdraw from him and forbid other craftsmen his lodge, so that none consort with him, until he shall have been fined.

16. Whatsoever master shall rob any place, or take aught from any place of labor whereby any one suffer loss, or if he be murderer or outlaw, him shall ye altogether thrust from out the guild of the craft and suffer him in naught.

17. Whatsoever master shall summon another master before the law, or suffer him to be so done by, or do him evil or speak ill of him, he is empty of all honor, and fit for neither fellow nor master.

18. A master shall appoint his warden, master and warden being both present; and he shall appoint no warden unless he be able thereto, so that the craftsmen and he be supplied. He shall impress him with the wardenship, and receive his oath to the saints on square and gauge to prevent harm to the building or the master.

19. So shall neither master nor his wardens be illegally set over the fellows.

20. When a master has set a warden, the fellows shall swear to be obedient unto him as unto the master, and the warden shall pledge master and fellows

21. And no master shall accept any fee from a warden or fellow on account of his re- quirements, nor any offering; for if he be not able to earn his wages then shall he be dis- charged on the Saturday.

22. No master shall out of goodwill accept any apprentice before he have served his time and won his right; that is not in the master's power to the extent of one week.

23. And the master shall appoint each week a treasurer, who shall make all payments, and account each week to the new treasurer, and shall be answerable to him \the master'] for the contents of the box.

24. And the master has power, if h6 so will, to rest in the lodge at vesper tide.

25. And if a master or fellow come free of the craft or trade, and demand a mark of a workmaster, to him shall he grant his wish, and he shall give for the service of God that Avhich shall be adjudged of master and fellows. And to master and fellows shall he pledge the mark doubly.

26. No master shall withhold his mark from his apprentice for a further space than xiiij. days, unless it be that the apprentice has wasted his master's time, lie shall then first do his behest before that and the feast.

27. And no master shall show any reluctance to pledge his apprentice's mark, and the several clericals whom he may bid thereto, with a penny wheaten bread of xv. gr., a loaf of XV. gr., meat, and two stoups of wine; and the apprentice shall not bid more than x. fellows, and if he bid more then shall he buy more, that the master suffer not thereby.

28. The master shall knock with three blows, the warden with two consecutively, and one for announcements at morning, noon, and eve, as is the old usage of the land.

29. The master may appoint an apprentice who serves for knowledge to the office of warden, if he be able to maintain it, in order that the building suffer not.

30. The master may lend his apprentice a mark to travel during his apprenticeship, if the master have no employment, and must let him travel.

31. No master shall allow his apprentice to pledge liis mark, unless he have served .his time.

32. No master shall lay snares for another and entice away his apprentice, so reads the letter.

33. No master shall employ any one who has brought himself to shame or dishonor either by word or deed; he is worse than a hound; him shall the master set down as void of honor, likewise also the fellows.

34. And no master or warden shall be held of good report who borrows and remains owing and is unwilling to pay. If this be brought home to him, he shall be warned and told to make it good by a certain time, and if he do this not, and do it not with the ap- proval of him to whom he is indebted, then shall he be debarred from aU employment until he comply with the wish of his creditor.

35. Also no master shall defraud or beslander the other, nor compete for his work unless it be that he have deserted it, or given it up, or permitted or prayed him so to do; so may he do it without fear. But should he do as aforesaid, the other masters shall cast him out.

36. Shame or dishonor one master the other by word or deed, and bring it not home to him, he shall be cast from out the craft.

37. Whatsoever master shall slight another's work, and is himself not able thereto, him shall ye proscribe.

38. And no master shall employ any fellow who has slandered another or doeth evil, and consorts with public women, and who in the hostelries or houses where they work, speaketh unchastely with maids or matrons, or is incontinent therein, who goeth not to confession oi doeth that which is wrong; he shall be proscribed and held an evil-doer.

39. And a master may hold a general court in his lodge over his own fellows, and he shall judge righteously by his oath, and not of hatred, or of friendship, or of enmity.

40. And furthermore, no master shall judge alone of that which touches honor or good repute; but there shall be together three masters who shall then judge such matters.

41. And further, every master shall inquire of his fellows every quarter, on their oath, if any hatred or envy be amongst them that might disadvantage the building; such shall he judge and put aside, and whatsoever fellow fail to comply herein, him shall he discharge, that no strife be found amongst them; and even though it please not the lords or the master builder, yet shall the master do right and avoid wrong, that he may keep his oath.

42. And he shall every quarter-day hold a hearing of lords and craftsmen, whether any offence were, whether they have wasted their time, lived riotously, gamed or otherwise acted disorderly, whence harm might come to wardens or master, that shall they make known to the master that he may punish therefor as is meet; and if the lords declare it not to the master and forgive it the fellows, then shall the master not punish on account thereof; and if a lord of the building know thereof and the master punish not, then doth he not fulfil his oath.

43. Is aught to be judged amongst masters concerning good report, or which might drive away work, or cause a false state of affairs, whence injury might arise, concerning year work, or large buildings, that shall be judged where the Book of Ordinances is de- posited, and the masters assemble every year on the day as is aforesaid; then shall the masters elect them an over-judge, and the wardens and fellows shall elect sheriffs to the judge, and they shall judge by plaint and answer on the oath as administered; and if they in anything disagree, they shall take to themselves arbiters, and take counsel together that justice be done to all men.

44. And masters and fellows shall punish each other amongst themselves, righteously for the best, that the lords may not interfere through their perjury.

45. Should the masters have one amongst them, be he master or fellow, and will not be in obedience, and set. himself up against these ordinances, we pray all lords that none take his part or defend him on his petition; should he nevertheless, against all usage, be de- fended against us, we know well, according to the Ordinances, how we shall then demean ourselves.

46. Should there be a master or fellow who would defend himself contrary to usage, ye are to call upon all cities and lords, and lay the matter before them, and enjoin them to help us maintain our right; for to him who shall help us to our right will we also be obedient when they require our services.

47. And thus shall be the wardens, and maintain thus the old traditionary lodge rights, according to ancient usage and the Book, and the Ordinances of the oath.

48. Every warden shall preserve his lodge, and all that he has sworn to, and all that is entrusted to him of the place of work, that shall he keep and maintain for the good of the building.

49. The warden shall show goodwill to the fellows, and show them, without anger and of goodwill, what they shall ask of him. He shall use no more than right with any fellow or apprentice, he shall always prove level and plumb-rule, and all that pertains thereto, that no faults be therein, and if the master himself prove not or prepare such, then is it the warden's part; and should the master at any time learn thereof that he have neglected these articles, he thereby incurs a penalty of xij. kr. to the master.

50. The warden shall willingly choose and mark out stones for the fellows and appren- tices, and inspect and see that they be well and truly made of the fellows; and if he do not so, and the master discover errors that anything be untrue, then shall he forfeit to the master viij. kr. and the fellow vj. kr.

51. And if a warden mark a stone because it is of no use, then shall he \llie workman\ lose his wages that he had otherwise earned on that stone, unless it be made of use.

52. AVhatsoever warden shall levy a fine on account of negligence, or other offence, and shall not acknowledge and announce the same, he shall forfeit twice the fine that has been incurred.

53. No warden shall deprive his master of his building by word or deed; he shall not mjure him behind his back with false words; as oft as he so does, shall he be declared worthless and of bad report, and shall no master, neither the fellows, suffer him, but whosoever shall stand by him shall like him be worthless.

54. A warden shall knock at the right time, and shall delay it on no one's account.

55. Is a master not on the works, or absent therefrom, then has the warden full power to do or leave undone that which is right in the master's absence.

56. And the warden shall mark the under side of the stones of fellows and apprentices, should the fellows and apprentices fail to answer the knocks, and not appear to the right time at breakfast; and if he take not the fines so shall he pay them himself.

57. The warden shall not quarrel himself, or incite any thereto, either at meals or at work; he shall always comport himself right amicably and justly; he shall keep the fellows to their stones or work, be it what it may, that no harm may ensue to buildings or masters; and the master shall decide the fine, according to the loss he suffers thereby.

58. And no warden shall allow meals in the lodge during working hours, but only at the vesper rest.

59. Nor shall he suffer that more be spent at the vesper meal, but only one penny, unless there be a pledge feast, or that a travelling fellow be arrived; then is the warden empowered to cease work one hour earlier.

60. A warden has power to further a travelling fellow to the nearest work, also power to discharge on the pay-evening, even if he be not a builder or master.

61. He has power to allow every fellow or apprentice a reasonable time without loss.

62. And every warden shall be the first in the lodge of a morning, and after dinner at the opening; and the last to leave, be it at noon or at eventide, that all fellows may follow his example, and come to labor all the sooner. Should he fail herein, and the master come to hear thereof, whatsoever loss is thereby incurred, such loss shall the warden pay.

63. The warden shall help preserve all privileges of the lodges and places of labor.

64. And the warden shall make no overcharge on workshop fines, but according to the traditionary usages of the pay shall he levy them; and if he do otherwise, so is he unworthy.

65. And he shall maintain all things appertaining to the place of labor, and keep them to use, even as the master.

Of the Ordinances of the Fellows, hotv they shall comport themselves.

66. Whatsoever fellow shall offer his services to another master before he shall have taken his discharge from the master with whom he serves, such fellow shall forfeit one pound of wax and be discharged.

67. Whatsoever fellow shall carry tales or create scandal between the master or other craftsmen, he shall forfeit one-half his week's wages.

68. Whoever takes another's tools without leave shall forfeit ij. kr.

69. Whatsoever fellow shall falsely apply his templet, or put it by before he have proved his work, and that without leave or before the master or warden shall have inspected his work, or shall leave his square hanging on the stone, or allow the level to lie about and not hang it up though it be furnished with a hole thereto, or lets his stone fall from the bench, or forces the pick iron from off the handle, or leaves his gauge otherwise than in the place appointed therefor, or closes not the window near his bench, — whoever shall do anything of the aforementioned articles, he shall forfeit iij. kr. for every such offence.

70. Whatsoever fellow shall speak the other ill, or call him liar in ill-will or earnest, or is foul-mouthed in the place of labor, he shall pay xij. kr. to forfeit.

71. Whatsoever fellow shall laugh another to scorn, or jeer at him, or call him by a nickname, he shall pay 15 kr. to forfeit..

72. Whatsoever fellow shall not offer assistance to turn his stone this way or that, to fetch it or to turn it over when necessary, or places his mark thereon as if it were truly made, and that before it shall have been proven, so that it be passed unprovea to the store, or improperly finishes his work, he shall stand to forfeit one half pound of wax.

73. Whatsoever fellow shall drink or eat to excess, so that it become known, he shall forfeit one week's wages and j. pound of wax.

74. Whatsoever fellow shall use force in places of labor or of refreshment, or shall consort with or treat notorious females in the presence of godly women, he shall be dis- charged, and the week's pay that he has earned that same week shall be retained and given to the box.

75. Whatsoever fellow shall squander lodge moneys, or pilfer, or murder, or steal, or commit any other crime, or disports himself in the land- with ungodly women, and goeth not to confession and doeth not God's will, he shall be cast out from the craft and proscribed for ever.

76. Whosoever shall slander another and spread evil report of him, and justifieth it not, he shall make atonement to the satisfaction of masters and fellows.

77. Who shall accuse another and bring it not home to him, him shall ye severely punish, that he be careful of his speech another time; but if he prove it to the satisfaction of the fellows, according as the offence is shall ye judge, and no fellow shall ye judge out of malice.

78. And no fellow shall lord it over an apprentice, but he shall lay his plaint before the master, wherein the apprentice have offended him, and he shall punish him therefor.

79. And no warden, nor fellow, nor apprentice shall be his own judge, for if they do that, which of right belongs to the master, then are they deserving of a fine; and the master shall be judge and none other.

80. And the fellows shall not fine each other without the knowledge of masters and wardens.

81. And no fellow shall hew stones with a proscribed fellow, unless it be that he have made amends on that day of the year, when the masters do assemble.

82. And no fellow shall lead a woman of evil report into the lodges or places of labor, neither shall he take her where masters are together; who so doeth shall pay iiij. pounds of wax.

83. Whatsoever fellow shall make unto himself holy days in the week when he should be at labor, they are not holy, and he shall not be instructed.

84. And whatsoever fellow is absent when he should be at work, even after the break- fast is eaten, he shall not be paid for his time till noon; and if he remain absent all day and come to supper, then shall he not be paid for the whole day.

85. Whatsoever fellow shall not, for his master's honor, accompany him to church on Sundays and the greater fasts at high mass, but remains without, and without leave, he shall pay iiij. kr. to God's service.

86. Whatsoever warden or fellow be not with his master at the stroke of one on the Monday afternoon, and keep with him the vesper rest, and hear what he shall do on tliat Monday, he shall pay the supper bill; if he set himself up against this he shall be discharged that Monday for disobedience, but if- lie pray excuse at his entrance, so shall he pay nothing and is free.

87. And every master may discharge a fellow from the building without causing anger, if it seem right to him.

88. And every fellow may take his discharge any pay evening if it please him, for none is bound to the other.

89. Whatsoever fellow takes service of a master for the winter, he shall be with him till St. John's Day, when the crown is hung up; unless it be that the fellow have aught serious against the master, whereby the work may sustain injury, then may he justly leave him. And if the fellow know aught to the master's dishonor, and keep silent, and hold his peace winter and summer, and denies it, that fellow keepeth not good faith, and is meet for no fellow.

90. And no fellow shall give master or warden any offering for the sake of work; with him shall no fellow work until he have been fined.

91. And no fellow shall do another's work for money, but he shall do one piece for another, or do it for him to his honor.

92. ISTo fellow shall speak against either warden or master.

93. And no fellow shall carry about with him any knife or other weapon other than one knife of half an ell in length, be it at work or refreshment; if it be longer, then shall he pay vij. kr. as fine, and also lay it aside.

94. If a fellow have not served his time, or have bought his mark and not honestly earned it, or if a hired servant or help establishes himself and teaches to work in stone, with him shall no man take service.

95. And no fellow shall speak ill of his master or warden unless he wish to make it known to those who stand in that master's service.

96. And no fellow shall fleece or maltreat the master builders, but they shall willingly do as the master builders instruct them if the master or warden be not on the works; but if they be there, so shall they tell the master or warden what is necessary to be said.

97. And no fellow shall complain of another fellow to the master builder, but to the workmaster.

98. And no master builder shall correct any strife amongst the fellows unless he be de- sired to do so of the master.

99. And no fellow shall take service with those who employ a master builder without the master's consent.

100. Whatsoever fellow shall be treated by the master builder, with him shall no fellow f^onsort.

101. Whatsoever offence the master builder commit, either against warden or fellow, that shall they lay before the master, and have strife with none.

102. And no warden or fellow shall secretly take pay without the master's knowledge; and though the master builder should wish to punish, it is for the master only to decide how he will arrange with his fellows.

103. And no fellow shall go with another to the closet, but one after the other, that the place of labor stand not empty; or one shall bear the other into the lodge, or pay ij. kr.

104. And no fellow shall do aught, or take stone for aught, or go out from the lodge, without the master's leave; and the master shall decide what he shall pay.

105. And when a fellow travels, then when he comes to a new lodge shall he leave his master in friendship, and not in anger.

106. And if a travelling fellow come before work is knocked off, he shall earn his day's wages. And every travelling fellow, when he has received the donation, shall go from one to the other and shall thank him therefor,

107. And this is the greeting wherewith every fellow shall greet; when he first goeth into the lodge, thus shall he say:

"God greet ye, God guide ye, God reward ye, ye honorable overmaster, warden, and trusty fellows;" and the master or warden shall thank him, that he may know who is the superior in the lodge.

Then shall the fellow address himself to the same, and say: "The master" (naming him) " bids me greet you worthily;" and he shall go to the fellows from one to the other and greet each in a friendly manner, even as he greeted the superior.

And then shall they all, master, and wardens, and fellows, pledge him as is the custom, and as is already written of the greeting and pledge; but not to him whom they hold for no true man, he shall be fined one pound of wax, xxiiij. kr.

108. And every fellow when he returns thanks, if he wish for employment, shall ask of the master, and the master shall employ him till the next pay day, and deny him not, that the fellow may earn his living; and should the master have no more work than he can perform alone, the master shall help him find work.

109. And every travelling fellow shall ask first for a pick, thereafter for a piece of stone, and furthermore for tools, and that shall be lent to him of goodwill.

110. And every fellow shall pray the other fellows, and they shall not turn a deaf ear; they shall all help; "help me that God may help ye;" and when they have helped him he shall doff his hat, and shall say, " God thank the master, and warden, and worthy fellows."

111. And if any fellow be in need on account of sickness, and have not wherewithal to live because he lieth sick, he shall be assisted from the box, and if he recover he shall pay it.

112. And if any fellow shall make a journey for the guild in that that concerns the craft his expenses also shall be paid him out of the box.

A careful comparison of these documents will clearly demonstrate that in one small particular onl}^, do they clash'. The Ordinances of 1459 and 1563 provide (Art. LVIII.) that an apprentice shall not be appointed warden; whereas those of 1462 (Art. 29) permit the master to appoint an apprentice to the office of warden, " if he be able to maintain it;" that is, if he be sufficiently instructed and capable, in order that no harm may thereby ensue. In all other points, the Torgau Ordinances are merely complemental to those of 1459.

As far as regards mere trade regulations, all these Ordinances are probably only con- firmations of previously existing customs, the preamble of 1459 stating clearly enough that the " masters and fellows at Spires, Strassburg, and Ratisbon renewed and revised these ancient usages;" but the fraternity was quite a new departure, which is plainly expressed by the words "kindly and affably agreed upon these statutes &nd fraternity." ^ The " fraternity " was agreed upon as something new; the usages, being ancient, were confirmed. Further proof is afforded in Art. XVIL, "No craftsman or master shall be received into the guild," which was renewed in 1563; so that we may presume that, even after more than a century, not every master had joined the fraternity; which is further confirmed by the first clause of Art. XVIII., also by Art. XXVII., and others.

See translation in Steinbrenner, Origin and Early History, etc., p. 86.

Again, we find that the Torgau masters drew up a special code, containing divers Ordi- nances that were obligatory on all workmasters and fellows; that is, even such as were not of the fraternity. And in effect, throughout the 1462 Ordinances, the brotherhood or fraternity is not once mentioned or taken into account, and the word " guild " is only men- tioned in the very last paragraph, the word " craft " being always substituted. Kloss ' very cogently insists on the previous absence of this fraternity, and strengthens his proofs by quotations from the correspondence carried on in 1518-1521 between Annaberg and Strass- burg; from which, it is undeniably evident, that the Saxon masters had not then all joined the fraternity, and were only induced to do so after strong persuasion on the part of Strassburg. Why subsequent writers have chosen to ignore Kloss's very logical proofs it is not our purpose to inquire, although their reasons are perhaps not far to seek.

The stonemasons Avere divided, like all other crafts whatsoever, into three classes, — ■masters, fellows, and apprentices. The apprentices, however, though of the craft, were not admitted to the brotherhood; in this respect an analogy existing with the other craft guilds. But with the stonemasons, as their laws reveal, the master remained a member of the brotherhood, and owed his position in the fraternity as presiding judge, solely to his qualification of workmaster; whereas in other crafts the masters had formed fraternities of their own, and the journeymen also; and the journeymen fraternities were presided over in some instances, by one of the masters of the locality, and in others by one or more of the journeymen themselves, who then took the title of " Old-fellow " (Alt-gesell). In both cases, however, the officer was elected by the votes of the members; and in the former the master was admitted more as a representative of the masters than as a president, the pro- ceedings being always conducted by the " Old-fellow," the master sitting as a sort of co- adjutor. ^

But if we assume that this distinction was intentional, and that the stonemasons consciously differed in this resjoect from other craft guilds, we shall commit an error of judgment. A very little reflection will show that in each case the known result was natural, nay, almost unavoidable. In a large town there would be many master bakers, master weavers, master butchers, etc., and each one would have one or more journeymen in his employ; but in very few cases would the number in any one workshop be sufficient to form a separate fraternity, or the efforts of one establishment of any avail in influencing the policy of the trade. All the shops of one class, in one city or district, would conse- quently form one guild, at first including both masters and men. But as the masters grew richer, more refined, and of more influence in the government of the city, — and the more their interests clashed Avth those of the workmen, the greater would be the tendency of the two classes to separate, — the workmen formed their own fraternity, either entirely exclud- ing the masters, or allowing one or more of them to hold elective office; and the masters would refuse the fellows admittance to their guild meetings. And thus we arrive, on the one hand, at the trade guild practically consisting of the masters only, but nominally of the workmen also, — a fact which the municipality did not forget when it came to the ne- cessity of ranging their military forces (that is, all citizens and burgers) under their respective banners; and, on the other hand, the workmen fraternities, who very soon, on account of their greater numbers, ruled the trade, and by means of constant intercommunication, through travelling journeymen, acquired a great uniformity of system in all parts of Ger- many. The guilds of masters interests us but little, but the journeymen fraternities may materially help us to fill up any blanks in our account of the stonemasons.

With these the matter was quite different. In any one town there might easily be many rough masons, and these would follow the example of the other trades, but there would be comparatively few stonemason masters. In all probability only two, one at the head of the cathedral building operations, and one permanently engaged by the municipality to look after their town halls and other sumptuous edifices. They would each employ a large staff of fellows, which would be insufficient for the formation of two bodies, even if we admit that one or tAvo small masters also worked independently in the cities, furnishing any stone carved work that the richer citizens might require for the embellishment of their houses. There may also have been one or two fellow crafts in each city, working on small jobs at their special trade for a like purpose, in the employ of non-craft masters, for we see by Art. XVIII. that this was quite permissible. Master and workmen would therefore be forced to remain together, and each master would naturally preside over the proceedings of his own workshop or lodge. His office, therefore, never became elective; but uniformity of usage was also, in this case, soon acquired by the intercommunication of lodges, and prob- ably the fraternities of the stonemasons are barely to be distinguished from the other craft fraternities except by this test. We shall soon convince ourselves that all their regulations and institutions were very similar.

The first condition, preliminary to binding an apprentice, was that he should prove his legitimate birth (Art. LX.). In addition to this, all German writers have insisted on the further qualification of honorable birth. Honorable, in this sense, would embrace many requisites; for instance, that his progenitors had been freemen for at least two generations, and that they had not followed any trade which was, in the eyes of this particular trade, degrading. It may be well to state that there is not an atom of proof that such qualifica- tion was deemed necessary, and I am unwilling to assert it as an undoubted fact; but as we do find this requirement exacted by other craft guilds, it is quite open to us to assume its being demanded by the stonemasons. Stipulations of this kind controlled the influx of workmen, and in many cases were very whimsical. Trades which were usually considered dishonorable by the others were those of * bath attendant, barber, gravedigger, trumpeter, herdsman, watchman, headsman, etc., and in some cities the weavers were thus classed; although in others they formed the most honorable craft. In the cities of pure German origin, lads of Slav nationality were considered dishonorable. One of the most curious restrictions is to be found in the constitution of the Bremen shoemakers, a.d. 1300 — "No one shall instruct in this craft the sons of weavers, porters, or of such women as are wont to harbor vermin." ^

The term of indenture was five years, and to ensure the apprentice completing his time he was required to deposit a guarantee of twenty florins (Art. LIX.), which possibly became the master's at the expiration thereof. The master did not receive the money at once, but it was deposited with a citizen, in order that if the master died the premium might be transferred with the apprentice to some other master. The master, on his part, was bound to perform his duty (Art. XXXIII.), and to ensure due accomplishment, a contract in duplicate carved on wood was entered into and deposited In a safe place (Art. LXIX.); and further to obviate all disputes the apprentices' inden- tures were entered into and cancelled in the presence of the whole lodge as witnesses (Art. LXIV.). The apprentice received two florins yearly as pocket money (Art. LXVI.), and was required to promise truth, obedience, and loyalty to his master (Art. LXV.), as well as submission to the craft and its decisions (Art. LXVII.).

The apprentice was required to complete his full term, or he was debarred from ex- ercising the craft (Art. LXXIL), besides forfeiting the deposited twenty florins (Art. LXIV.), unless, indeed, he wished to enter into wedlock, when he might compromise matters with his master (Art. LXXII.). In Art. 22 this is most emphatically laid down — " Not to the extent of one week " could any one shorten the five years of servitude. This term of five years, however, was not previously, nor subsequently, universal; in some districts four years appear to have been sufficient. We find an acknowledgment of this in the confirmation of the 1563 Statutes by the Emperor Ferdinand II., 16th September 1621, in which, summarizing the principal Ordinances of the Brother-book, he confirms the term of five years, but also provides that one who has only served about four years shall not be received into the Brotherhood, unless he pays two florins to God's service, in lieu of the one year. ' In the sixteenth century also, there arose a lively quarrel between the lodges of Strassburg and Annaberg (in Saxony), owing to the persistence of the latter in receiving apprentices for four years. ^ And, finally, all this is implied in Art. LXI., and curiously enough, although past offences are condoned, yet the Ordinances distinctly forbid in 1563, wliat is as distinctly permitted by the Emperor in 1621. One point in the Ordinances is somewhat misty. A distinction is made in Art. XV. between a rough and an art ap- prentice, and the curious term " art apprentice" {Kunst dlener) is more than once made use of, but what the distinction was it is impossible to say. Even writers " who scornfully assume the air of knowing and understanding all things better than any one else," ' have passed this over in silence, and I can only point to the distinction without professing to explain it. Another problem occurs in Art. 30, where provision is made, under certain circu^mstances, for the apprentice commencing his travels before the expiry of five years, instead of completing his term under another master, as already directed (Art. LIX.).

The care with which every point, even the most minute, is considered, appears in Art. LXXI., whence it is evident that before binding an apprentice the master was allowed to test his capabilities and fitness, but was not to extend this trial over a fortnight. And, again, in Art. LXII., where the usual safeguards are insisted on, even between a master and his own sons.

Having completed his apprenticeship a new life now awaits the young workman. He is declared free of the craft and obtains rank as a fellow craft (gesell) ; but does not neces- sarily thereby enter the fraternity. This act is solemnly performed before the assembled lodge (Art. LXIV.), and was doubtless accompanied by some formalities, of which the leading features are pointed out. We know that he had to take a solemn obligation " on his truth and honor in lieu of oath," under the penalty of being expelled the craft, that he would be a true, loyal, and obedient mason, that he would maintain the craft as far as in him lay, that he would not of his own initiative alter or change his distinctive mark, and that lie would not disclose the greeting {gruss) or grip {^chenck) to any non-mason; and even that he would not commit any part thereof to writing (Arts. LIV. and LVI.). These methods of recognition were then imparted to him, and the ceremony concluded with a jovial feast, which was partly at the master's expense (Art, 26), and partly at his own (Art. LXX.). To this feast sundry guests were invited, probably the clergy attached to the building then in course of erection; and even the bill of fare is provided for (Art. 26). The master is strictly enjoined not to delay this action for a longer period then fourteen days, except on good and valid grounds (Art. 26); and it is expressly stipulated that hence- forth nothing shall be unjustly withheld, in order that no excuse may be pleaded in after- times (Art. LXVIIL); hence we may assume that amongst other masters the Ordinances were read to him. This was called pledging his mark, toasting it, or drinking good luck to it; and so important was the occasion considered, that the stipulated rules of frugality were suspended, and the warden was empowered to cease work one hour sooner (Art. 59). This mark henceforth became his distinctive property, and was used by him as a species of signature; and he was required to engrave it oji all his work upon completion, and severely punished if he did so before the work had been proved and passed (Art. 72). What the grip was we are not told; but at the beginning of this century, Herr Osterrieth, an archi- tect, who had been professionally educated at Strassburg, where he joined a survival of the Stonemasons, on being admitted to Freemasonry by Heldmann at Aarau (in the province of Aargau, Switzerland), expressed his astonishment at recognizing in the entered appren- tice grip the token of the Strassburg Stonemasons. ' Unless we think fit to doubt this as- sertion, the masonic reader will know what the Stonemasons' grip was; and if we believe it, the curious question remains, is the resemblance a mere coincidence, or a proof of a connecting link between the German and English Stonemasons of the Middle Ages ? On Osterrieth's own showing, he must have violated his promise of secrecy to his Strassburg brethren, and therefore cannot be regarded as a witness of scrupulous veracity. He places himself in the awkward dilemma, either of having deceived the Freemasons of Aarau by a falsehood, or of having perjured himself, so that we shall be justified in receiving his dis- closure with caution. It is also to be noted, that although all writers claim a grip for the stonemasons, the only evidence by which this claim can be supported, is the one word quoted in Art. LIV., viz., Schenck. This word is derived from scliencken, to give; hence handscliencken, to give or shake hands; and in this case we must suppose that the word Hand is omitted and understood, as Schenck alone would not import the fuller meaning. The word schenck occurs very frequently in the Ordinances, and in other clauses always refers to the pledge feast; ausscliencken or verschencken is to pour out, a libation, a toast, pledge, etc., and as these toasts were always drunk in other handicrafts, with a prescribed movement of hand and cup, accompanied by a fixed form of words, it may be assumed that the stonemasons also had their pledge-ritual. It is therefore just possible that in Art. LIV., the word alludes to the pledge, and that the article forbids the fellow craft to divulge to the non-mason this peculiar ceremonial. Inasmuch, however, as all German writers agree in attributing the possession of a certain grip to the present descendants of the stonemasons, and taking into consideration that the word is used conjointly with " greeting " (Gruss), it may reasonably be concluded, that the existence of a grip has been fairly demonstrated.

Heldmann also states (p. 250) that the Steinmetzen had a series of prescribed steps, identical with those of the Freemasons, but he cites no authority, not even his friend Os- terrieth; so that it remains more than questionable whether the former has not given a very- loose rein to his imagination. Fallon more than once describes these steps, asserting, but always without authority, that they were usual on various specified occasions; and Winzer (p. G7) copies him. According to Heinsch, they reappeared amongst the Stone-lieivers, and are described as three equal steps forward and backward, in which, however, there is noth- ing suggestive of Masonic identity.

But the new craftsman was also charged not to reveal the greeting. Findle, Fort, Steinbrenner, and others, translate this word by " salute," a term I avoid as conveying a sense which I am inclined to think is unauthorized. A salute combines the idea of a greeting by word of mouth and a greeting by action; in fact, a sign and a speech. Now I am unable to find any mention in an authentic document of a sign. Fallou writes throughout, in such a manner as to leave the impression, that the salute was accompanied by a sign; and Fort (p. 215) expressly declares that a wandering journeyman on entering a lodge "advanced by three upright measured steps, and gave the salute, Gruss, or hailing sign." It is impossible to restrain a feeling of impatience, when writers, whose works would be otherwise valuable, destroy the confidence of a critical reader by such baseless assertions. In no trade of the Middle Ages, not even amongst the Stelnmetzen, is it possible to find the slightest trace of a sign or of anything approaching thereto. If such indications exist, they have escaped my researches, and neither Fallou nor Fort give the least authority for their statements. It would not, however, be fair to leave unnoticed the remark, that sculptured images may still be seen in existing mediaeval churches, whose attitudes bear a close resemblance to certain of our masonic positions. Indeed, Fort positively asserts, " that in one of the churches at Florence there are life-size figures in masonic attitudes. ' The idea thus suggested, is further supported by a pictorial representation of the entrance to the cathedral in the same city, which he gives as a frontispiece to his well-known work. In this sketch we find portrayed (exclusive of minor figures) the forms of five ecclesiastics in reverential attitudes. The postures they assume, will remind those conversant with the services of the Roman Church, of the attitude of the ofiiciating priest, and beyond the strong family likeness which must always exist, between supplicatory and reverential posi- tions of all kinds and in all countries, assumed in invocation of Divine aid, I do not see that there is anything to merit our attention in the similitude upon which Fort has laid ,30 much stress. It may be added, that to what has been happily termed by Mr. Hyde Clarke, " the doctrine of chance coincidences," are due all the " traveller's tales " of later years, wherein as a common feature, appear either the manifestation or the recognition of masonic signs, by Arabs of the desert, native Australians, Bushmen, Afghans, etc., etc. Upon the whole, I think, we may safely infer that whatever resemblances may appear to exist between the masonic ceremonial and the attitudes to which Fort has alluded, are as much the product of chance as the "supposititious masonry" of our own times, which has evoked the excellent definition of Mr. Clarke.^

As for the greeting itself, we are distinctly told what it was in Art. 107, also the words in which a fellow was to claim assistance (Art. 110), and how he was to return thanks for the help tendered. It may seem strange, that what was considered a secret should have been committed to writing; and in fact, Fallou asserts ^ that it was never in use, and that the Torgau Ordinances were of no authority, being merely a private sketch of a proposed new ordinance and rule; and he elsewhere states that they never received confirmation. The latter statement is correct, and, moreover, they were never meant to he confirmed, being entirely subsidiary to, and elucidatory of, the 1459 Ordinances; but as to the former, it is so palpably erroneous, as shown in another place, and by the preamble itself, that Ave need waste no words about it here. Fallou prefers to this documentary evidence, the statements of a Stemmetz of the present day; the greeting, however, as told by him is so similar, that it may well have arisen from the old original — all except the three upright steps, against which I have already protested. When we take into account, however, the fact that the Torgau Ordinances were never printed, or intended to be, and were probably only entrusted to well-known masters, as may be presumed from the fact that up to the present time only one copy has come to light; when we consider how important it was that this greeting should be given with great exactitude, in order to distinguish a hond fide craftsman, we can no longer wonder at the Saxon masters ensuring its accurate preserva- tion. But if so, why was not the grip similarly preserved ? Because it was so simple in its very nature, that once learned, it could not be forgotten or perverted.

AVe have thus been able to trace many of the events in the career of a "^prentice" stonemason, more so than is possible in any other craft guild. The reason is obvious, if we bear in mind, that the craft guilds consisted of two distinct fraternities, that of the masters and that of the journeymen, neither of whom have thought it worth while to lay down in writing any rules for their conduct in respect to apprentices. We know, however, that all trades insisted on an apprenticeship, varying in its terms; that certain stipulations, as already noticed, were in force respecting their birth; and we further know that at the completion of his time the apprentice was presented by his master at a " Master's Meeting," where it was certified that he had completed the specified term and given satisfaction. He was then declared by the board free of his trade, and became ipso facto a journeyman. We find no trace of greeting and grip at this simple ceremony, but we shall at least find the former of these appearing at another stage. In some trades the apprentice was required to substantiate his knowledge of the craft, failing which he was placed under another master, in order to complete his education before being declared free. ' As regards the mark, although we have no evidence that this custom was a general one, and indeed in many trades its observance would have been well nigh impo sible, yet in a few the members were required to chose a mark, and place it on all their work; for instance, the cutlers of Nuremberg^ and the joiners.^ We thus find the mark appearing in shops where the number of Avorkmen employed was considerable, and where it might become necessary to distinguish one man's work from another's; and we can easily understand that with the or- dinary tradesman, such as the baker, butcher, shoemaker, it was not necessary, and therefore not in use. The mason's mark thus loses (in Germany) much of the recondite symbolism which enthusiasic writers have attributed to it, and becomes reduced to a mere trade regu- lation arising out of the exigencies of the handicraft. Whether or not it afterward received any mystic interpretation, need not now be discussed, as it is fully treated of elsewhere.

Our young journeyman is now ready to commence his travels, which, in different trades, extended over a longer or shorter space, as the case might be. The rationale of this pilgrimage is readily explained. It kept down the number of masters by prolonging the novitiate, it served to bring all the different and independent guilds of a trade into a close harmony of usage, and it helped to propagate the improvements, which, in any particular locality, had been engrafted on the specialties of a handicraft. This, in an age of slow locomotion and gradual dispersion of news, was highly beneficial; but above all, it served to widen each craftsman's ideas and judgment, to complete his trade education, and to rub off any local prejudices. But in order that a journeyman ' might be able to travel, especial institutions were necessary. In the earliest times, the craftsman, on entering a new town, applied at the first shop of his trade that he came to, for work for eight or fourteen days, and if the master was able to employ him he did so, if not he recommended him to another master. Failing to find work in any shop, the craftsman received a night's lodging, supper, and breakfast, in the house of the master whose turn it was to receive, and at his departure next morning a small sum of money sufficient to carry him to the next town. Later on, the masters arranged with some tavern keeper to afford the necessary board at their expense. This tavern was then the house of call for a particular trade, where the journeyman could at once obtain information if work were procurable, and where the masters could leave notice if they required any extra assistance. The landlord and his wife were styled father and mother, their children and domestics,, male and female, brothers and sisters. Later on still, wdien the journeymen established their own frater- nities, these houses became their places of meeting, and some one, either a journeyman or a master, was deputed to call there every day at noon, in order to welcome, and provide work for, new arrivals, or if such was not possible, to attend to their bodily comfort by partaking loitli them of a stoup of liquor. The supper and bed were furnished at the ex- pense of the fraternity, to whose treasury, however, the masters also contributed. The new comer, unless work were found for him, usually received a small sum of money to carry him forward. This was called the Gesclioik — the donation or present. We thus see that a journeyman could travel from one end of Germany to the other, without exercising fore- thought as to his expenses, and yet without feeling that he was in any way subsisting on charity. But in order to avail himself of this jorivilege, it was required that he should be a member of t\ie fraternity, which he therefore joined at the place of his apprenticeship; and in the body of this fraternity he found that ceremonious greeting which, as we have already seen, the stonemason received from his craft on being admitted to its freedom. These greetings appear to have been distinguished by a strong family likeness. The fol- lowing may be taken as a common formula: " The Worshipful Master X and the trusty fellows of the craft of . . . at Y city, bid me greet the worshipful master, trusty fellows, and craft at Z city." The other then returns thanks, much in the same way, and next follows a species of dialogue between the two, the exact rendering of which substan- tiated the fact that the applicant was a true brother.^ I can scarcely think it possible, that in the very early times any craft furnished its members with a certificate or diploma; although this appears to have been the case in some few trades later on (and is now almost universal), as we find all German writers making a distinction between Grussmaurer (salute- mason) and Briefmaurer (letter-mason), the former of whom legitimized himself by the greeting, and the latter by documentary evidence. We shall, however, again touch this point at a later period.

Now, although the stonemason was free to exercise his craft without entering the fra- ternity, as is abundantly evident from the statutes already quoted, and was provided with the means of travelling, inasmuch as he possessed the greeting and grip, yet it is quite clear that his interest lay in joining the brotherhood. Of course no one could he forced to join a society composed of free-men, exercising their free v/ill; but a little reflection will show, that indirect pressure could easily be brought to bear; and that future comfort was greatly dependent on absorption within the fraternity ; just as at the present time, many a workman is compelled against his will to join a trade-union. It has been already men- tioned, that this "fraternity" existed amongst the stonemasons, and that it differed only from those of other crafts in comprising the masters amongst its members. Throughout the 15G3 Ordinances the guild ov fraternity, and the craft, are distinguished; the German for the guild being in all cases Ordniing, and for the craft or trade, Steinwerck, Iland- werck. ' One great advantage that the non-afhliated mason would miss is shown in Art. XXXIV., which provides for the sustenance of a sick brother of the guild, but makes no provision for one of the craft only. Every master is expressly enjoined (Art. LVI.), upon the oath which he has taken to the craft (viz., that he will strengthen and maintain it), to use his influence to induce his former apprentices to join the hrotlicrliood. We may, therefore, fairly assume that every "fellow," before commencing his travels, did join the fraternity; and it may also be reasonably concluded that in course of time his affiliation took place with a ceremony of some kind. And this brings us to the most difficult point of our research; and the one upon which the most loose and unfounded assertions have been made. To begin with, Winzer ^ states justly enough, that before joining he was only a free stonemason (free of his craft,) and that after joining he became a brother also. But he is quite itnjustified in deducing the conclusion that he was thenceforth a " free and ac- cepted mason" {freier und angenommener Maurer), as such a term a,', "accepted brother" {angenommener Bruder) occurs nowhere in German documents prior to 1717, and even " free " {frei) is never applied to the completed apprentice, who was always called losgesagt or losgesclilagen, i.e., declared or "knocked" loose. It is evident that Winzer, in his zeal to prove that our present masonic system is of German origin, has adopted a now current phrase, although he ascribes its derivation to a German source. But the greatest perverter of history in this respect is Fallou. A careful glance at the Ordinances will convince us that no single clue of the remotest kind is afforded as to the nature of the affiliation cere- mony; we are not even told that a ceremony existed, nor is it probable that it did in 1459, although one may have become usual in after years. We are not informed that there were any secrets to be communicated, or mysteries to be concealed, or any further instruction to be acquired; nay, we are directly assured that there were none; because, as already pointed out, the perfect apprentice was no longer to have aught concealed from him (Art. LXVIII.) ; that is to say, that everything necessary to the due prosecution of his profession became ids by right, whether or not he joined the fraternity. Fort, in his description (which is chiefly copied from Fallon), evidently confuses the distinct occasions of passing to the journeyman's degree and of entering the fraternity, which mistake, however, Fallou has avoided. Findel ' also, following the same lead, has not only fallen into a similar error, but contrives to entangle with both these incidents some of the preliminaries of indenture. Steinbrenner ^ has gone even further astray, placing the conferring of the mark last of all. Their great authority Fallou^ presents a graphic description of this ceremony, but it will be sufficient in this place to glance at its leading features. He avers that the candidate was blindfolded, half unclothed, slipshod, deprived of weapons and metals (a cord about his neck), led three times round the lodge; that he then advanced by three upright steps to the master, undertook an obligation on the Scriptures, square, amd compasses, was restored to sight, shown the three great lights, invested with a white apron and gloves, etc., etc. Now, I think it may be positively affirmed, that if Fallou could have fortified these asser- tions by the merest color of authority, he would have done so; also that if subsequent writers had been able to discover any confirmatory evidence, they would have given it. My endeavors to trace any foundation of authority have proved lamentable failures, and com- bining this experience with the above considerations, I do not scruple to pronounce that the entire ceremony has been invented by Fallou. The account is in itself improbable. Why should the fellow craft be blindfolded ? There was no concealed light to be revealed to him as far as operative masonry was concerned, and of a speculative science there is no trace in the annals of the Steinmetzen. It should be recollected, moreover, that Fallou places before us the details of an affiliation, and not of an initiation. Beyond a doubt, the novice would be " deprived of weapons;" these were never at any time allowed in lodge (Art. 93); and possibly he may have been partially unclothed in token of humility, and to remind him of his distressed brethren. But Avherefore the cord " about his neck " and the rest of the ceremony? The whole account is palpably absurd. It may at once be frankly avowed that no record exists of the ceremony of affiliation amongst the stone- masons, and even, according to Fallou, their present descendants have preserved none of any kind. It is therefore in tlie highest degree improbable that we shall ever know whether one existed ; but we have means at hand, if we concede its possible existence, of forming an imperfect idea of its nature, in the recorded ceremonies of other journeyman fraternities. Some of these usages certainly survived until the early part of this century, and may perhaps even now be more or less practiced.

We find, then, that the first thing necessary to render a meeting of the fraternities legal was the opened chest of the society. This contained their documents, minute-books, registers, and treasury, and was usually secured by three locks and keys, which keys were in possession of three different officials; hence their joint presence must also have been necessary. The presiding officer then knocked with some symbol of authority (usually a staff" or hammer), to procure silence. The periodical contributions of the members were then collected. Complaints were next heard and strife adjusted. The locksmiths* (and possibly other crafts) closed their meetings by three formal inquiries, whether anything for the good of the craft or of the fraternity offered itself All ceremonial operations were conducted in the form of a dialogue between the officials. Now let us note the ceremony of affiliating a journeyman joiner. ' He was ushered into the assembly, and placed before the president in an upi-ight position, his heels joined, and his feet at right angles, which was insured by the square being placed between them. His posture was proved by the level, and he was required to stand erect, elbows on his hips, and hands spread out sideways, so as to repre- sent an equilateral triangle, of which his head was the apex. He was denominated throughout "rough wood." He was then directed to listen to a lecture. The first part of this lecture treats of the origin of the joiner's art, and includes remarks on architecture in general, couched in rude verse, the phraseology of which (according to Stock) denotes an early eighteenth century origin, and much of it is based upon Vitruvius. In the generality of crafts he underwent a rude symbolical ceremony called lidnsehi, that is, handling or manipulation. In the case of the joiners this consisted of being stretched on a bench, and rather roughly planed and shaped with various tools, in fact treated as rough wood under the joiner's hands. The locksmiths turned a key round three times in the mouth of the candidate.^ After this ceremony the joiner was called in future " smooth wood," and the proceedings being ended was once more placed under the level. We then are treated to a reminiscence of knightly installations; for the master having asked his name and received for aH answer, say " Martin," exhorts him thus — "Until now you were Martin under the bench, now you are Martin above the bench;" he then slaps his face, and continues, " Suffer this, this once from me, henceforth from no man."^ The joiners' ceremony has been selected for quotation, being the most symbolic that I have met with, and therefore the least inimical to the theory of there being at this period any species of speculative masonry; and because, as might be expected from their intimacy with the masons, it shows traces of a connection with architecture. Stock does not give the lecture in full, but as a good example of the " oration" common on such occasions, I now transcribe that of the smiths,^ also formerly in close union with the masons, as would naturally occur. It con- tains excellent rules for conduct, and some lessons in morality (to which occasional at- tention will be directed in parentheses). Although couched in rude language, it is brim- mino- over with the rather ponderous wit of our German cousins. Berlepsch admits that some of the allusions point to a rather recent date, but, on the other hand, states that many are undoubtedly of very ancient derivation. The lecture also conveys a very complete idea of the usages and customs of a travelling smith, the various ceremonial greetings and set speeches being repeated at several places.

Sources

  • G. Kloss, Die Freimaurerei in ihrer wahren Bedeutung, pp. 240-250.
  • Berlepsch, Chronik der Gewerbe. See vol. i. for general observations covering the above statements.

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