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Freemasonry in the German Empire

Source: [Phoenixmasonry]



Note: This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference. Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.



Robert Freke Gould 143 Meanwhile, Louis II, who died in 1848, had been succeeded by Louis III, who was not a Mason, nor did he appear to interest himself at all in Masonic matters. Great therefore was the astonishment produced by a Grand Ducal decree of 1859, expressing a wish to see all Hessian Lodges united under the authority of the Grand Lodge Concord at Darmstadt. This affected four Eclectic Lodges, one each at Alzey, Giessen, Offenbach and Worms ; and a royal wish being equivalent to a command, non‑compliance probably meant dissolution. On the other hand, submission was difficult, because the Eclectic Union having admitted Jews to initiation in 1848, whereas the Darmstadt Union would not even allow them to visit, the Lodges ran the risk of losing their Jewish Brethren, who had become very dear to them; Giessen especially was largely recruited from members of the Hebrew race. Grand Lodge, however, passed a resolution to allow these four Lodges to violate the Constitutions, provided they would consent to certain disabilities, viz. deprivation of the right to vote on matters of Ritual and inability of their members to fill offices in Grand Lodge. The four Lodges then joined, making seven in all.


In 1859‑September ii‑Lotheissen died and Matthew Leykam, Doctor of Laws, was elected Grand Master. As the latter resided in Frankfort, the Grand Lodge was removed for nine years to that city.


A new Lodge (No. 8) was constituted at Friedberg on November io, 1862 and, in the same year, the Constitutions were revised. Intercourse with their Jewish Brethren having removed many prejudices, the right of visiting was conceded to all Masons of that faith.


The ninth and last Lodge was warranted at Bingen, July 7, 1867, and‑a further sign of progress‑its Constitutions permitted it to initiate Jews, but it had to submit to the same restrictions as the other four Lodges.


In 1868 the Christian Lodges, " out of their exceeding love," voluntarily conceded full rights to the five mixed Lodges, merely debarring them from furnishing a Grand Master from among their members. Leykam, who died on February 2o in this year, was succeeded as Grand Master by the Postmaster‑General, Pfaltz.


At the revision of the Statutes in 1872 the Jews were granted full rights ; so that in all Germany there are now only two Grand Lodges, the National and Three Globes, both at Berlin, which insist upon a candidate for Freemasonry being a Christian.

INDEPENDENT LODGES I.

MINERVA OF THE THREE PALMS, LEIPZIG

In 1736 seven Masons who had been made abroad were in the habit of meeting together in Leipsic and, on March 20, 1741, they formed themselves into a Lodge. This Lodge is usually accounted a member, from the commencement, of Rutowsky's Grand Lodge of Upper Saxony ; but it is also possible that it only entered into friendly relations with the Three Gold Swords. The Lodge had no special name, but it prospered exceedingly and, at the end of the year, already numbered 46 members. In 1742 its services were called into requisition to inaugurate the Lodge at Altenburg. In 1745 it split up and divided into a French Lodge of the Three Compasses and a German‑speaking Lodge, Minerva. These reunited on June 5, 1747, as Minerva of the Three Compasses, which was confirmed by the Grand Master Rutowsky. In 1747‑November 2o‑a Scots Lodge, Apollo, was grafted on the Lodge.

See also: Minerva zu den drei Palmen


In 1766 a difference of opinion respecting the expediency of joining the Strict Observance caused a majority of the members to found a new Lodge, Minerva of the Three Palms Minerva zu den drei Palmen, under von Hund and, in 1772, they finally severed themselves entirely from Minerva of the Three Compasses, which gradually died out. The Knightly Chapter was erected March 16, 1767.


In 1773 the Lodge constituted Minerva of the Three Lights at Querfurt and, in the following year, the Scots Lodge Apollo changed its name to Karl of the Three Palms, in honour of Prince Karl of Courland, a member of the Lodge.


The Lodge took an active part in all the affairs of the Strict Observance, but began to tire of the folly about 1776. It therefore sent no Deputies to the Wilhelmsbad Convent in 1782, nor did it adopt the rectified system. On the contrary, it ceased in 1776 to create fresh knights, so that the Chapter gradually died out, until at last the Count Hohenthal alone was left‑who, to keep the history of the Chapter alive, formed a so‑called Inner Union of a few chosen members of the 4th or Scots Grade. The exact scope of this institution has, however, eluded research.


In 1783 the Lodge for a time showed signs of an inclination to join the newly formed Eclectic Union, but it decided ultimately to remain isolated, or, rather, independent.


The last of the Knights, Hohenthal, died in 18i g and the Constitutions of the Lodge were remodelled, April 8, 182o. The old Scots Lodge Karl was formed into a Directoral Lodge, governing the affairs of the Lodge. It consisted of twenty seven Masters. Seven members of this Directoral Lodge combined to form an Inner Union, who also completed their number from time to time in a similar manner. The duty and privilege of the Inner Union was to discuss all matters of importance before they were submitted to the Directoral Lodge, etc.


Mahlmann, Master, 1813‑26, revised the Ritual which had suffered much during the Strict Observance times and this version was accepted in 1829, three years after his death.


The Statutes underwent revision in 1832 and 1867. On the latter occasion Jews were freed from all disabilities. In 1863 the Lodge had 359 members, which in 1878 had increased to 414, and in 1885 to 447ò II. BALDWIN OF THE LINDEN, LEIPZIG In 1776‑February 7‑several Masons, among them some of the Minerva members, founded a Lodge Baldwin under the Zinnendorff Rite. The Lodge was constituted on February 23 by Duke Ernest of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg, Grand FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 145 Master of the National Grand Lodge of Berlin. It suspended work July z4, 1781, but resumed on March 13, 1783, under the title of the Linden (lime‑tree). In 1807‑November 7‑this Lodge threw off its allegiance and declared itself independent.


Beckmann, the English Provincial Grand Master for Hamburg, granted it a new Constitution‑January 14, i 8ocg‑as an independent Lodge under the title Baldwin of the Linden. The Lodge adopted the Schroeder Ritual and new Constitutions‑which were revised in 18 3 3 and 18 5 4.


The Lodge joined the Grand Lodge of Saxony in 1815, but retired once more in 18 z4, after which date it maintained its independence. Its members numbered in 1864, 3 Oz ; in 1878, 424 ; and in 1885, 509. The strength of the Leipzig Lodges was remarkable. There were but three in the city : Minerva, independent, with 447 members; Baldwin, independent, with 509; and Apollo‑under the Grand Lodge of Saxony‑with 3 84.

III. ARCHIMEDES OF THE THREE TRACING‑BOARDS IN ALTENBURG

In 1741 several Altenburg Masons applied to H. W. von Marschall, Provincial Grand Master for Upper Saxony, for permission to erect a Lodge. Marschall granted the prayer and forwarded a copy of the English Ritual, but advised them to apply elsewhere for a Warrant. The Brethren turned to the Minerva Lodge at Leipsic and were constituted by a Deputation from that body, January 31, 1742. From the very first, Lodge Archimedes conducted its proceedings in the vernacular idiom and was probably the earliest German Lodge that ever did so ; in 1743 it published the first German Masonic song book. In 1751 Prince Louis Ernest of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg was Master of the Lodge and he procured from the Three Globes a Warrant for a Scots Chapter, which, however, died out almost immediately afterwards. The Altenburg Fraternity, which always adopted innovations with reluctance, worked pure English Masonry until 1775.

As seen already, on June 30 of that year, Duke Ernest II of Saxe‑Gotha‑Altenburg was elected Grand Master of Zinnendorff's Grand Lodge; and Archimedes naturally joined the National Grand Lodge and accepted the Swedish Rite. Although the Duke resigned in disgust the following year, the Lodge did not reassert its independence until 1785 and, subsequently to that date, continued to use the Ritual, to which it had become accustomed in the preceding ten years, even keeping up the practice after joining the Eclectic Union in 1788.


It seceded from the Eclectic Union, in anticipation of the threatening political troubles, in 1793 ; the same reasons induced it to suspend its meetings on January 9, 1795, after having declared its officers " permanent " during the interim. In 1796 it reopened. At the beginning of the nineteenth century it rejected the Zinnendorff Ritual and accepted as a temporary measure that of the Eclectic Union. Pierer received orders to compile a new one and, after carefully comparing the Rituals of England, Scotland, Ireland, the Royal York and Hamburg, his version F. IV‑I0 146 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE was accepted in 1803.

In the same year Schneider published the Constitutions of the Lodge, a work even now much sought after for its valuable contributions to Masonic archxology, which show a wonderful power of just criticism considering the time at which they appeared. From this epoch may be dated the rise of the brilliant Altenburg school of Masonic historians and students, to whose labours all are much indebted. No fewer than three Masonic journals owe their birth to this school‑the Journal fur Freimaurer, the Zeitschrift fur Freiliaaurerei and the Ziegeldecker‑which in later years became the Bruderbldtter. The last‑named publication continued to appear until 1854. Fallou, whose work has been alluded to so often, was a member of the Lodge.


In 1803‑December 18‑the Lodge opened a branch at Gera, but this was afterwards constituted by it an independent Lodge, October 25, 1804. The Altenburg Lodge divided into two in 1803 and erected a Directoral Lodge to govern the Lodge at Gera and the two new divisions at Altenburg ; but the whole arrangement was abrogated in 1805, when the old position was resumed.


In I8og the Lodge established a branch in Schneeberg, but this joined the Grand Lodge of Saxony in 1812.


In the election of its officers, etc., this Lodge followed the English plan ; but it possessed a sort of permanent committee to sift matters before they came before the Lodge, consisting of the Master and Deputy Master, the Wardens, all Past Masters and Wardens. Its library contained over 700 valuable works. In 1823 it opened a savings' bank, largely used by the surrounding population. In 1861 its members numbered zio ; in 1878, over z5o ; and in 1885, z71.


IV. ARCHIMEDES OF ETERNAL UNION AT GERA

On January 16, 1803, several resident Masons formed a Masonic club in Gera (the capital of the principality of Reuss the Younger, one of the pigmy independent states of Germany) and, at the close of the same year‑December 18‑this club was declared a branch establishment or Deputation Lodge of Archimedes at Altenburg, under the name Archimedes of Eternal Union. That is, it could only act under the directions of its parent and in its name, much as an agent acts for his principal. This state of tutelage proving inconvenient, the Lodge petitioned for independence and, in the result, was reconstituted by Lodge Archimedes (of Altenburg), October 25, 1804. The German Grand Lodges, however, refusing to acknowledge the right of one Lodge to constitute another and declaring the Lodge at Gera to be clandestine, the subject of this sketch at last petitioned Schroeder in Hamburg to grant it an English Charter. This was issued April 30, 18o6. It then accepted and worked the Schroeder or Hamburg Ritual. Gera was not in the jurisdiction of Hamburg; but Grand Master Beckmann granted the Warrant by virtue of his right to do so outside his district in states where no Grand Lodge existed. (G. W. Speth gave the Warrant at length in The Freemason of May 16, 1885.) At Gera and Hamburg the Lodge was considered as directly dependent a FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 147 on London, whilst by the English authorities it seems to have been regarded as subject to Hamburg. This may account for the fact, that it only received an English number (669) in 1815, five years after the Provincial Grand Lodge for Hamburg had ceased to exist. Virtually, however, Archimedes retained its independence. The princes of Reuss were members and patrons of this Lodge. Speth (in Royal Freemasons) gives as such Henry LIV of Reuss‑Lobenstein (i 81o), Henry LXXII of Reuss‑Ebersdorff and Lobenstein (1827), Henry LXXVI of Reuss‑Lobenstein F (1852) and Henry LXVII of Reuss‑Schleiz (1852). In 1862 the membership of this Lodge was 121 ; in 1885, 187.



V. KARL OF THE WREATH OF RUE, HILDBURGSHAUSEN

Hildburgshausen is a town in the small Duchy of Saxe‑Meiningen. According to the Handbucb, a Lodge, Ernestus, was warranted here by England in 175 5, which only lived a few years. No trace of it is to be found in the English Lodge lists. In 1787 a second Lodge was warranted‑also from London, which was continued in the English Lists till the Union; this was the Lodge Charles of the Ruewreath, but the Lodge lists call it Lodge of St. Charles, No. 495. The Wreath of Rue is part of the armorial bearings of the Dukes of Mecklenburg. It worked independently under the immediate protection of its princes and the number of its members in 18 8 5 was 5 4.


k P In 1883‑October 14‑the five Independent Lodges entered into a Treaty of Alliance and Bond of Union.


y EXTINCT GRAND LODGES I. HANOVER Of all the extinct Grand Lodges of Germany this is, by far, the most important and, naturally, of most interest to English readers.


On July 26, 1743, Provincial Grand Master Luttmann, of Hamburg, deputed Simon as Provincial Grand Master for Hanover, but no sign exists that he ever displayed any activity in that office. There was, indeed, inanition, almost complete, between 1743 and 1746, explained by Findel as due to an inquiry instituted by the ecclesiastical court of Hanover against the theologian Kirchmann, who had been initiated in Harburg. The court forbade all clergymen to belong to any Fraternity whatever.


On January i g, 1744, Lieutenant, afterwards Captain, of Horse Grenadiers, Mehmet von Konigstreu was initiated in Lodge Absalom at Hamburg. His father, Mahomet, had been taken prisoner of war as a child in Candia during the Venetian Wars. Prince Maximilian of Hanover brought him home and had him baptized Louis Max. Mehmet. He was subsequently ennobled, appointed Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King George and died at Kensington Palace, 1726. In 1746‑ 148 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE January 2i‑he obtained a Warrant from Luttmann and, on the 29th, founded the Lodge Frederick in Hanover, so called in honour of Frederick, Prince of Wales. In 1753‑June 27‑Hinuber was elected Master and, in 175 5, in consequence of a slight difference of opinion with Hamburg and of discovering that the Lodge had not been registered in England, he made use of his business relations with England to ascertain if there was any chance of obtaining a Provincial Warrant for Hanover. Being assured that if the Lodge would indicate some special Brother, a patent would be forthcoming, the Lodge elected Hinuber as Provincial Grand Master‑June 25 ‑and‑November z8‑he was appointed Provincial Grand Master of all His Majesty's German dominions, " with a power [in the Province] to choose his successors " (Constitutions, 1756, p. 333). The Grand Lodge Frederick in Hanover was registered as No. zo8, became No. 122 in 1792, and was " dropped out " at the Union (1813).


There sprang up in Austria and Germany a system of Deputy Lodges, one of which‑The Three Hearts‑was formed in connexion with the Lodge Frederick at Hanover (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, v. 15). Deputy Lodges were of two kinds, viz. those meeting on single occasions for specified purposes away from the accustomed meeting‑places, held at The Hague and at Hamburg, for the initiation respectively of the Duke of Lorraine and of Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia; and those of a more permanent character, where the Lodge empowered some of its members residing at a place distant from the regular meeting‑place to assemble, appointing, for that purpose, a Deputy Master, who was authorized to initiate candidates and, generally, to transact Masonic business. All expenses attendant upon such meetings were borne by the parent, who also received, without deduction, the fees paid by the candidates, together with any other revenue.


In 1754 John Frederick Raban de Sporcke, attached to the Danish Court and a member of Lodge Frederick, went on a short visit to Vienna, where he met some members of the Craft and others, who desired to be initiated. Knowing that, in 1747, permission had been granted for Deputy Lodges elsewhere‑one especially at G6ttingen (named Augusta), dissolved in 1753‑he sought and obtained permission to hold one at Vienna, on condition that the Lodge should be closed when he left the city. He was, of course, appointed Master. The furniture and all requisites were sent to Vienna from the Lodge Frederick. The patent was dated May 22, 1754 and the Lodge was bound to Anderson's New Book of Constitutions. This Deputy Lodge was opened on June zi following under the name of The Three Hearts. One of the candidates on June 28 is described as " Hobart, son of Lord Buckingham." From particulars given afterwards this was evidently George Hobart, eldest son of John, first Earl of Buckinghamshire, who succeeded as third Earl on August 3, 1793. He was M.P. for St. Ives in 1754 and for Beeralston in 1761, 1768 and 1774.

He was for a time Opera Manager in London and, in 1762, was appointed Secretary to the Embassy in St. Petersburg (as it was then known), where his half brother, John, who became second Earl, was Ambassador. Hobart was raised to the dignity of a Master Mason on July i z of the same year. Overtures FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 149 were then made by the Lodge of The Three Cannons for an amalgamation, but this was not possible because of the condition that the Lodge must be under the control of de Sporcke. One interesting feature in connexion with this Lodge is that all the members adopted assumed names, such as Cleander, Liberty, Minerva, Galen, Nagel, Xerxes and the like. After the departure of de Sporcke for Hanover, notwithstanding the injunction, J. A. Hinuber became Master, rendering account of all transactions to Lodge Frederick at Hanover. This Deputy Lodge came to an end on July z1, ‑175 5.


On June z4, ‑1756, the Crand Lodge made a formal visitation to the Lodge Frederick and the next year‑January 3‑1‑Frederick accepted a Warrant of Confirmation from the new Grand Lodge of Hanover.


On the outbreak of war all Masonic meetings " with the enemies of their country " were avoided and this put a complete stop to Masonic work until 175 8. In 176o a Scots Lodge, Karl of the Purple Mantle and, in 1762, May 24, the Lodge George of Hanover, were founded.


In ‑1764 Hanover was formed by von Hund into the Prefectory Callenberg under the Strict Observance system, which, at first, was vigorously opposed by the Grand Lodge and its daughters, but gradually acquired preponderating influence. The last Craft meeting of the Lodge Frederick occurred January 1 z, ‑1765.


Schubart arrived in Hanover October 13, ‑1766 and commenced his propaganda on the 27th. Prince, afterwards Grand Duke, Karl of Mecklenberg‑Strelitz joined the Strict Observance in Celle and was appointed Protector of the district ; on November z 5 the Lodges George and Frederick dissolved in order to reconstitute themselves as the Strict Observance Lodge of the White Horse and thus the Grand Lodge of Hanover ceased to exist. As a consequence, in ‑1773 Hanover was made a neutral territory, open alike to the Grand Lodge of England and the National Grand Lodge of Prussia at Berlin.


Zinnendorff, who immediately invaded the district, met with remarkable success. In ‑1774 he established a Lodge of the Golden Compasses at Gottingen ; in the same year this Lodge warranted the Black Bear in Hanover and the Crocodile in Harburg, in ‑1775 a Lodge in Luneburg ; whilst, in ‑1777, the National Grand Lodge constituted the Cedar in Hanover, a Lodge in Stade and, in 1778, one in Hameln.


Meanwhile the Fraternity had found themselves disappointed in the Strict Observance and took no interest in Lodge matters, so much so that the White Horse did not meet between 1775 and 1778. The Protector, Grand Duke Karl, to remedy this state of affairs, ceased working the Strict Observance Rite, gradually altered the Ritual of the first three Degrees and, without formally renouncing the Templar connexion, practically revived the extinct Grand Lodge by converting the Scots Lodge Karl of the Purple Mantle into a Directoral Lodge over all Lodges of the Strict Observance in His Majesty's dominions in Brunswick, Luneberg and Hanover. After the Wilhelmsbad Convent of 1782 the Fraternity in these lands declined to accept the rectified system and calmly continued in their own 150 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE way. Some few of the Zinnendorff Lodges, more especially the Black Bear, at this time entered into more or less intimate relations with the Lodges under the Grand Duke, Governor of Hanover for George III.


In '1786 this Prince, being in England, procured, with Col. Graefe's assistance, the reinstatement of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Electorate of Hanover and British Dominions in Germany (the patent granted to Prince Charles of Mecklen burg‑Strelitz bore date July 5,'1786‑Grand Lodge Records) together with a Warrant under the No. 486 for the former Zinnendorff Lodge of the Black Bear. The Lodge White Horse then prefixed its former name and became Frederick of the White Horse and, November z8, this Lodge and the Black Bear joined in re‑establishing the Provincial Grand Lodge. A Royal Arch Chapter was also added by Graefe, but was very short lived.


The district was, however, invaded in '1786 by the Eclectic Union at Hoya and, in 1792, by the National Grand Lodge of Germany at Osterode.


In 1796 new Statutes were enacted in consonance with the new arrangements, of which the chief fault was the non‑admission of Jewish candidates.


In 1791 the Provincial Grand Lodge constituted new Lodges in Munden and Einbeck. In '1799 Fessler visited Hanover and was enthusiastically received, as was Schroeder in '1 8oo. The immediate result of these visits was a closer bond of union between the Grand Lodge Royal York and the Provincial Grand Lodges for Hanover and Hamburg. But of still greater importance was the consequent adoption by Lodge Frederick‑August io, '18oi‑of the Schroeder Ritual, an example soon followed by the Provincial Grand Lodge and all its daughters. This opened the door to candidates of the Jewish persuasion.


A troublous time now awaited the Fraternity in Hanover : in 1803 the French troops entered into possession of the country and, in 18o6, were replaced by the Prussians. Meanwhile the Lodges only met when absolutely necessary, but it is worthy of note that they yet managed secretly to celebrate the birthday of King George. In 18o6 the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes constituted a Lodge at Osnabruck. In x807 the Lodges summoned courage to resume work; in i 8o8 new Statutes were promulgated; in '1 8og the Provincial Grand Lodge warranted a Lodge in Liineburg and that of the Three Globes another in Goslar ; and in 18 '1 o Hanover became an integral part of the short‑lived kingdom of Westphalia. The Grand Lodge of that kingdom was, however, so tolerant that the Lodges were not compelled to give in their adhesion and, although some few Hanoverian Lodges joined it, the Provincial Grand Lodge retained its separate existence, as did most of its daughters.


In 1813‑November 3 o‑Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, fifth son of George III, visited the Lodge Frederick of the White Horse and, at the ensuing banquet, prayed admission as an active member. It is needless to say that the request was joyfully granted. The events Of 1814‑15 raised the Electorate of Hanover to the rank of a kingdom, besides considerably enlarging its boundaries. In 1815 the Provincial Grand Lodge constituted a Lodge in Nienburg and affiliated FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 151 the one warranted in Celle by Hamburg in the previous year. It also received the adhesion of a Lodge in Gottingen which had been erected by the Grand Lodge of Westphalia and several of its daughters who had joined that body now returned to the national fold.


Karl, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, died November 6, 18 16 and was succeeded as Provincial Grand Master by Count L. F. von Kilmansegge, whose appointment is first noticed in the Freemasons' Calendar for 1822. In the same publication Lodge Frederick of the White Horse reappears as No. 146* and eleven other German Lodges‑Nos. 734, Frankfort; 735, Nuremberg; 736‑44, Hanoverare added to the roll, all under the year 1821. Gradually, however, a feeling arose that the Grand Lodge should declare its independence. In consequenceNovember 1, 1828‑the Duke of Cumberland proclaimed the autonomy of the Grand Lodge of the Kingdom of Hanover and was himself elected its first Grand Master.


The year 1828 saw the accession of the Lodge at Hildesheim, Door to Virtue, No. 312, warranted by England, December 27, 176z; and new Lodges were constituted at Stade 1845, at Kassel 1849 and at Klauenthal 1851. New Statutes had been passed January 22, 1839.


At the death of William IV in 1837, Hanover became an independent kingdom and the Duke of Cumberland, Grand Master, succeeded to the vacant throne. He died in 1851 and was followed by his son, George V. In 1852‑March i9 although not a Mason, George V assumed the patronage of the Craft and, in 1857, caused himself to be initiated in the Black Bear, as the representative of all the other Lodges in the kingdom, becoming thereby an active member of each one of them.


Von Hattorf had been elected Grand Master in 1851 and, at his death, July z9, 18 5 4, was succeeded by Count Bentinck, February i, 18 5 5. In 18 5 7, however, the King expressed his intention of assuming the Grand Mastership upon the condition that the Hanoverian Lodges under foreign jurisdictions should join the i Grand Lodge of Hanover and that the Statutes should be so altered as to exclude Jews from initiation. The latter condition was sorrowfully complied with; the former was only opposed by the Zinnendorff Lodge erected at Stade in 1777, which preferred dissolution.


In the following years new Lodges were constituted‑‑i 8 5 7, at Verden ; 18 5 8, Harburg ; 1859, Leer ; 186o, Ulzen. In 1861 the number of Lodges was 22, with 2,187 members. The last Lodge was warranted in 1863 at Hameln.


In the Austro‑Prussian conflict of 1866 Hanover unfortunately espoused the losing side and suffered by annexation to Prussia. Now, inasmuch as the edict of 1798 only acknowledges three Grand Lodges in Prussia and no other Lodges but those dependent upon these three, extinction stared the Grand Lodge of Hanover in the face. Nevertheless had it at once applied for permission to rank as a fourth Grand Lodge and, had the Grand Master himself resigned, there is reason to believe that the prayer might have been granted. Hamburg and Frankfort are now Prussian, but the edict of 1798 was not enforced in their case in 1870. But resignation 152 FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE formed no part of the late King's intentions ; there is every cause to conjecture that, on the contrary, the position of Grand Master entered into his political calculations.


The Deputy Grand Master Krtiger endeavoured to get Hanover constituted a fourth Grand Lodge. King George thereupon tried to impeach him in Grand Lodge‑by which body resolutions were passed‑December 8‑approving the step taken by the Deputy, but setting a limit to his future activity. Kruger resigned, as did his successor, Bodeker. The King then appointed Bokelberg. On April 17, 1867, the Grand Lodge resolved to petition the King to retire, upon which his agent, the Deputy Grand Master Bokelberg, resigned. The Grand Lodge then took matters into its own hands, and‑June 6‑17 Lodges elected Kruger Grand Master. But it was too late. On September 30 the Minister of Justice and of the Interior closed the Grand Lodge of Hanover by virtue of the edict Of 1798 and nothing remained for the subordinate Lodges but to choose their new superiors. Velzen, Goslar and Osnabruck joined the Three Globes; Btickeburg, the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; Walsrode dissolved; Cedar, in Hanover, joined the National Grand Lodge; the other 17 Lodges affiliated with the Grand Lodge Royal York and were of material weight in carrying the more liberal Constitutions of that Grand Lodge in 1872.



II. MOTHER‑LODGE OF SCHLESIA IN GLOGAU

This was a Grand Lodge under the Strict Observance. On May 20, 1765, von Hund constituted a Mother‑Lodge at Nistiz, with the name of Celestial Sphere of Gold. It was removed in 1772 to Gross‑Osten and warranted in 1772 a Lodge at Glogau. In 1779 the Mother‑Lodge removed to Glogau as the Grand Lodge of Silesia. It constituted some other Lodges, but both the Grand Lodge and its daughters closed on June 24, 1794, after the downfall of the Strict Observance and the death of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick.



III. MOTHER‑LODGE FOR THE PROVINCES OF EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA AND LITHUANIA AT KOENIGSBERG

This also was a Strict Observance Grand Lodge. The oldest Lodge in Konigsberg, the Three Anchors, was constituted September 1 z, 1746, dissolved in 176o and immediately reconstituted by the Three Globes, June io, 176o, as the Three Crowns. In 1769 it joined the Strict Observance and was raised to the rank of a Provincial Grand Lodge, as above, in which capacity it warranted several Lodges. In consequence of the Prussian Edict of 1798 recognizing only three Grand Lodges in that kingdom, it subsided into its former position of a daughter Lodge of the Three Globes in 1799. The Lodge is still active. In 1863 it numbered z6z ; in 1885, 312; and to‑day (1930), 459 members.


IV. GRAND LODGE OF THE THREE KEYS AT RATISBON

This was in its time an important Grand Lodge, remarkable for having successfully resisted the blandishments of the Strict Observance. Its influence extended over a very large circle. In 1765 a Prince of Thurn and Taxis founded in Ratisbon a Lodge St. Charles of Constancy, which he himself dissolved in 1774. But, during those nine years, it had given birth to a second Lodge, Crescent of the Three Keys, constituted May 1, 1767. The Master of that Lodge, Schkler, who had been initiated in Amsterdam, obtained‑July I, 1768‑from Grand Master Von Botzelaar of the Netherlands, a Warrant of Constitution and immediately assumed for the Lodge the prerogatives of a Grand Lodge. It worked the Degrees of the Craft, with those of a Scots Lodge superadded, in 1770 ; the latter were, however, suppressed in 1784, so that‑considering the times‑the Lodge kept itself remarkably pure. In 1771 it warranted its first daughter, Hope, in Vienna and, during the next twenty years, Lodges in Marktseft on the Main, Munich, Passau, Ulm, Baitsch, Neusohl in Hungary, Hermannstadt in Siebenburgen, (a second) in Vienna, Gorlitz, Dresden and Hanover‑in all twelve. Schkler was Grand Master from 1771 to 1777, when he resigned; and the second Grand Master, the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, was elected in 1799. It is probable that this long interregnum was due to the ravages committed in every direction by the Strict Observance. From 1793 to 1799 the Lodge was perfectly dormant, owing to the disturbing effects of the Revolution. But it resumed activity with the new Grand Master, who, June 6, 18o6, obtained a patent from England. In this he is styled " Provincial Grand Master for Bavaria," an excusable error, Ratisbon being one of the recent acquisitions of that State; and it is indeed surprising that the Grand Lodge did not take the place now occupied by the Sun of Bayreuth. The Lodge also changed its name to Karl of the Three Keys and constituted several Lodges, for instance, Leipzig and Heidelberg. In the first decade of last century the Grand Lodge had lost all her daughters through death or desertion, but was itself strong and much respected throughout the Continent; with Sweden especially it stood on the most intimate terms from 18oi to 1823. It gradually fell into decay, but once more, about i83o, flickered up under Von Stachelhausen. On his departure from Ratisbon the Lodge died out altogether, circa 1840. A detailed account of this Lodge will be found in Latomia, vol. xxii, 1863, pp. 322‑30 V.


ENGLISH PROVINCIAL GRAND LODGE FOR BRUNSWICK AT BRUNSWICK

This Grand Lodge can hardly be said to have existed, but its short history exemplifies the unsettled state of the Craft at this period. In 1744‑February 12the Lodge Jonathan was founded and opened by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg; and, on December 27, its founder, Kissleben, was appointed Permanent Deputy Grand Master. In 1762 the Lodge superadded the Rosa‑Clermont Chapter; and, in 1764, the blaster, Von Lestwitz, was appointed by England Provincial Grand Master for Brunswick (Constitutions, 1767, p. 365 ; Preston, 1812, p. 261).

But whilst the Warrant was on the road, Lestwitz and the Lodge had both deserted to the Strict Observance, so that the Provincial Grand Lodge was never erected. A minority of the Lodge, however, continued the old Lodge Jonathan; and, in the same year, Le Boeuf, in his quality of a Scots Master, established a French Lodge. These three quarrelled, so that the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick closed them all and founded two new ones, one working in French as a Mother‑Lodge, St. Charles of Concord and a German Lodge Jonathan.

This he did by virtue of a Provincial patent granted to him by England, July 5, ‑1768. The Lodges were constituted on October Io and I I, ‑1770. But before the end of the year Ferdinand had signed the Act of Strict Observance and that was the end of the second Provincial Grand Lodge of Brunswick. St. Charles of Concord was granted a place in the English registry as No. 400 in 1770 and continued on the roll until 1813 (as No. 259)‑one of many proofs that the Grand Lodge of England knew little and cared less concerning foreign affairs.



VI. BODE'S UNION OF GERMAN FREEMASONS

In 1788‑March i‑the Directoral Lodge of the Eclectic Union at Frankfort resumed its former position as a Provincial Grand Lodge under England. This seems to have given umbrage to the Compass Lodge in Gotha, who feared or pretended to fear, that the perfect equality among the Eclectic Lodges would be violated. Their chief adviser was Bode. As he was a convert to the Illuminati and Frankfort had declared itself adverse to that sect, this circumstance may have also contributed to the ensuing events. Certain it is that the Gotha Lodge issued a circular to all German Lodges‑November 24, 1790‑signed by nine Masters " acting under the advice of a highly instructed Mason " (Bode) calling upon all Lodges to aid in forming a general Union of German Lodges on the real Eclectic principles. The Gotha Lodge was erased and that of the Three Arrows at Nurerr_berg took its part so warmly as to provoke a like result.

These were the only two Eclectic Lodges that joined Bode's Union, which in all never numbered more than ten Lodges. Bode died in 1793 and, with him, the projected union and Grand Lodge after a precarious existence of three years. The movement is of interest, as the last effort of a man who was made a Hamburg Mason in 1761, dubbed a Templar Knight in 1764, who, in 1782, first took up the idea that the Jesuits were at the bottom of all the High Degrees and finished by joining the Illuminati.



VII. GRAND ORIENT OF BADEN AT MANNHEIM

In 1778 Mannheim belonged to Bavaria and the Lodge Karl of Unity was constituted in that city‑November 28‑by the Grand Lodge Royal York. In 1783 it joined the Eclectic Union and, in 1785, was closed together with all other Bavarian Lodges. In 1803 Mannheim was made over to the Grand Duchy of Baden and, in 1805, the Lodge reopened under Karl von Dalberg. In 1806 it received a Warrant from the Grand Orient of France, accepted the modern French Rite and FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 155 changed its name to Charles of Concord. Its Chapter then declared itself a Grand Orient for the Duchy of Baden and was acknowledged as such by France on June 25, 1807.


In I 8o8 it was joined by the Lodge Karl of Good Hope, Heidelberg, warranted in 1807 by the Grand Lodge of Ratisbon‑which it deserted, but rejoined, in the same year. In 18ocg it constituted the Lodges Temple of Patriotic Light at Bruchsal and Karl and Stephanie at Mannheim; so that in all the Grand Orient extended its jurisdiction over three Lodges. Its Grand Master was Karl, Prince of Ysenburg. The Grand Duke, Karl Friedrich, being dead, his successor, Karl Ludwig Friedrich, issued‑February 16, 18 13 and March 7, 1814‑decrees suppressing secret societies and, with them, Freemasonry throughout his dominions. All Lodges in Baden then closed and the Craft was not allowed to reassert itself until 1845 ; but there is no longer a Grand Lodge for Baden.


VIII. GRAND NATIONAL UNION OF BADEN LODGES AT CARLSRUHE

This Union was contemporary with the foregoing. The Karl of Unity at Carlsruhe was warranted by the Eclectic Union in 1786, closed during the Revolution from 1791 onwards and reopened in 1808. The Lodge Noble Prospect at Freiburg was warranted by the Provincial Grand Lodge for Austria at Vienna in 1784, joined the Eclectic Union in ‑1785 and was also dormant from 1793 to 1808. The Karl of Good Hope at Heidelberg was warranted by Ratisbon in 1807, joined the Grand Orient of Baden 1808 and rejoined Ratisbon the same year.


These three Lodges‑May 23, ‑18og‑erected the Grand National Union of Lodges, to be governed, not by a Grand, but by a Directoral Lodge, the Lodge exercising this function to change every three years. Lodges of each and every Ritual were eligible for the Union, except those working the French Modern Ritewhich was ceded to the Grand Orient of Baden. These two Grand Bodies subsisted side by side in perfect amity. The Heidelberg Lodge threw off a shoot in i 8og, which was constituted by the Eclectic Union and joined the Baden Union without apparently deserting Frankfort. In like manner the original Heidelberg Lodge appears to have belonged to the Ratisbon Grand Lodge and the Baden Union. In 18og the Bruchsal Lodge also joined it without deserting its Grand Orient and there is a further though somewhat undefined allusion to a Minerva Lodge at Mannheim. Its Grand Masters were successively K. F. Schilling von Canstadt and Hemeling. The Directory remained at Carlsruhe until July I, i8‑12, when it was removed to Freiburg, but in 1813‑14 the same fate of course overtook this Union, which crushed the Grand Orient of Baden.



IX. GRAND ORIENT OF WESTPHALIA IN CASSEL

An English Provincial Grand Master; described in the Constitutions (1767, p. 365) as George Augustus, Baron of Hammerstein, was appointed by Earl Ferrers ‑1762‑4‑for Westphalia, but he does not appear to have exerted himself to any purpose, for nothing more is known of him.


In the electorate of Hesse‑Cassel the first Lodge was constituted at Marburg in 1743 and others soon followed. The Strict Observance in due course swamped the Craft and, on its subsidence, the preponderating influence was that of the Grand Lodge Royal York. In 1794, however, the Elector suppressed all the Lodges in his dominions. In 1807 the Electorate and the city of Cassel became the centre of Napoleon's kingdom of Westphalia, at the head of which he placed his brother Jerome.


The first Lodge to revive, Frederick of Friendship, took the name of Jerome Napoleon of Fidelity and, in order to avoid falling under a French jurisdiction, erected a Grand Orient of the Kingdom of Westphalia, February io, i8o8. This was done at the instigation of Count Simeon, Jerome's chief minister, himself an assistant Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. The king was Grand Master and Simeon his Deputy; but all the other officers were Germans. The utmost toleration prevailed and Lodges under other jurisdictions were not compelled to affiliate; any Ritual was permitted and Lodges enjoyed complete freedom from interference in their private affairs. Three new Lodges appear to have been constituted in Cassel (18o8‑13), and the following joined :‑Miinden, Alfeld, Hildesheim, Einbeck, Goslar, Osterode, Heiligenstadt, Eschwege, Gottingen, Nordhausen, Celle, Marburg, Hanover (a new French one), Helmstedt, Magdeburg, etc. In 1813 the kingdom of Westphalia disappeared and with it the Grand Orient.



X. GRAND LODGE OF HESSEN‑CASSEL IN CASSEL

was revived. Von Bardeleben succeeded in obtaining a repeal of this obnoxious decree, but only on the condition that the Lodges would submit to the Grand Lodge Royal York, under an intermediate Provincial Grand Lodge for the Electorate, with Bardeleben as the Provincial Grand Master. Accordingly two Lodges at Cassel and one at Eschwege constituted‑May z6, 18I4‑the Provincial Grand Lodge desired by the Elector and placed themselves under the Royal York of Berlin. In 1817, however, this Provincial Grand Lodge declared its independence under the title of Mother Grand Lodge of the Electorate of Hesse and the Elector William II on his accession, promised it his protection. Besides the three already mentioned, the following at Marburg, Rinteln, Hanau, Ziegenhain, Hersfeld, Neutershausen ; in all, nine Lodges formed part of this jurisdiction. But, on July icy, 18z4, an edict of the Elector once more suppressed and interdicted the Lodges and, in spite of all petitions to the contrary, they remained forbidden and closed until the events of 1866 caused the Electorate to be incorporated with Prussia.


OTHER MASONIC UNIONS NOT CLASSED AS GRAND LODGES I, GRAND UNION OF FREEMASONS (FESSLER'S)

It will be remembered that in 1799 and 18oo both Fessler and Schroeder visited Hanover and, about the same time, these two ardent reformers made each other's acquaintance. Early in 18oi Fessler attempted to strengthen the hands of FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE 157 the leading supporters of pure Freemasonry by drawing closer the bonds of union between the Provincial Grand Lodges for Hamburg and Hanover and the Grand Lodge Royal York of Berlin. On August 20, 18oi, a tripartite treaty was concluded between these bodies, entitled Magnum Foedus Latomorum, providing for mutual representation, communication of all Minutes and for a select circle in each Grand Lodge for the free imparting to one another of all ritualistic and historic knowledge.

Resolutions were adopted against the use of any of the old‑fashioned High Degrees and provision was made for the admission to the Union of other Grand Lodges. Frankfort was invited to join the Union. But at this time the Provincial Grand Lodge was dormant and wished to refer the matter to England before deciding. Deceived by this condition of affairs, the Royal York warranted a Lodge‑Socrates‑in Frankfort, December 4, 18oi and to the friction to which this gave rise, the absence of a reply from London and the renewed dormancy of the Provincial Grand Lodge for Frankfort in 1803‑5, must be ascribed the failure on the latter's part to affiliate with the Union. Following this came the French occupation of Berlin and Hanover, thus the Union gradually lost its hold on the Lodges and is now confined to a mutual representation in Grand Lodge, which, however, has extended to all the other Grand Lodges of Germany.



II. THE CORRESPONDENCE BUREAU

In most German Lodges two secretaries divide the work between them, one attending to the Minutes and records, the other conducting the correspondence, both with members and with the Lodges in fraternal alliance. It is usual for the latter to forward, in the summer, to every member and allied Lodge a so‑called St. John's letter, detailing the events of the past twelve months, giving a list of present members. In some cases allied Lodges undertake a regular exchange of their respective Minutes. As the parties to these arrangements increased in number, the work became more onerous and Dr. Lechner of the Baldwin Lodge, Leipzig, formed a plan to facilitate matters, which was communicated to the Lodges by circular in 1831. According to this scheme the Baldwin Lodge was to act as a central point under a special officer charged to receive proceedings from all quarters, and to distribute them to all corresponding members. Forty‑two Lodges joined the Association at the outset.



III. UNION OF THE THREE GRAND LODGES OF BERLIN

A Union, composed of the Grand and Deputy Grand Masters of these three Grand Lodges, was founded in i 8 io to deliberate on matters of common interest. It had been preceded by a joint monthly committee meeting, established in 1807. Unfortunately in 1823 the Grand Lodge of Hamburg and the National Grand Lodge quarrelled about the Lodge at Rostock. Hamburg brought its case before the Union through the good offices of the Grand Lodge Royal York. This produced very strained relations and the Union‑by common consent‑quietly came to an end.



GERMAN GRAND LODGES' UNION

This Union worked to great advantage for the Craft and, in the absence of an impossible General Grand Lodge, served to maintain a close bond between every system in the Fatherland and to preserve or inaugurate a common line of conduct in external affairs.


VII. UNION OF GERMAN FREEMASONS

This was a purely deliberative and literary society, composed of individual Masons meeting yearly at various cities. It was founded in 1861 and at first met with strenuous opposition from some of the Grand Lodges, so that in .1867 it only numbered 309 members. It has, however, formed a valuable library and museum at Leipzig and its official organ is the Leipzig Bauhiitte. Its influence has grown yearly and, in .1878, it numbered I,5o9 active and 31 corresponding, members.


Although the exigencies of space forbid more than a passing allusion to many subjects of deep interest to our antiquaries, but lying on the extreme border line of history, there is one upon which‑at this stage of our inquiry‑some general observations will not be out of place.


Germany (including Austria and Switzerland) excels all other countries, both in the affluence of its Masonic literature and in the profundity of research which has characterized the labours of so many gifted historians of the Craft. The earliest efforts of German Masonic writers‑translations of the English Constitutions, orations and didactic pieces‑evince both diligence and accuracy. Thence, by a gradual transition‑the publication of the Constitutions of many other Grand (and private) Lodges, of songs and poems remarkable for beauty of thought and diction‑we are brought to a higher sphere of intellectual labour and find in the literature of the Craft, the noblest moral teaching, accompanied by very learned and ingenious reflections on both the origin and objects of our Society.


Lessing‑" the father of German criticism "‑known to Masonic readers by his Ernest and Falk, 1778 and Nathan the Whise, 1779‑a noble plea for toleration and a rational religion‑was followed by Vogel, Letters on Freemasonry, 1783‑5 ; Albrecht, Materials for a Critical History, 1792 ; Schroeder, Materials for the En gbund, 18oz ; Schneider, Constitutions of Archimedes, etc., 1803 ; Fessler, Attempts at a Critical History, etc., I8oI‑7 ; Krause, The Three Oldest Masonic Documents, 18Io ; Mossdorf, Addresses to Thoughtful Masons, 1818 ; Heldmann, The Three Oldest Historical Documents of German Masonry, 1819 ; Nettlebladt, History of Masonic Systems, circa 1836 ; O'Etzel, History of the Three Globes, 1840 ; Kloss, Annals of the Eclectic Union, I 84z‑Freemasonry in its True Significance, 1846‑Freemasonry in Great Britain, 1848‑and in France, 185z ; Fallou, The Mysteries of Freemasonry, 1848 ; Winzer, The German Brotherhoods, 1859 ; Keller, History of the Eclectic Union, 1857Of Masonry in Germany, 1859; Findel, History of Freemasonry, I 861‑z ; and Paul, 16o FREEMASONRY IN THE GERMAN EMPIRE History of the Eclectic Union, 1883. The list might be extended and both Herder and Goethe are to be classed among " writers of the Craft." German periodical literature devoted to the Craft began in 1776‑9 with Bode's Almanach, subsequently there appeared (inter alia) the Freemasons' Library, 17781803 ; Vienna Journal for Masons, 1784‑6 ; Kothener Annual, 1798‑1805 ; Meissner's Pocket‑Book, 1801‑17 ; Altenburg Journal, 1804, continued as Fisher's Zeitschrift and Neueste Zeitschrift ; Nettlebladt's Calendars for the Provincial Grand Lodge of Mecklenburg," 1821‑46; but above all, the matchless Latomia, commenced by Meissner and Merzdorf in 1842, continued to 1873. The most prominent Masonic journal in Germany at the present date is the Bauhiitte, begun in 1858. Works of especial merit are Gidicke's Lexicon, 1818 but chiefly on account of its being the first of its kind; Kloss's Bibliography, 1844, a monument of research; and the Handbook 1863‑79‑or the second edition of Lenning's Encyclopadia, edited by Mossdorf in 1822‑8. No other Masonic work of a similar character can pretend to rival the Handbuch der Freimaurerei in the extent, variety and accuracy of its information.


In 1931 there were in Germany nine Grand Lodges : i. The Sun at Bayreuth, with 45 Lodges and 4,ooo Brethren, Hermann Kolbein, Grand Master. 2. The Grand National Mother‑Lodge at Berlin, 179 Lodges, 21,3oo Brethren, Dr. Karl Habicht, Grand Master. 3. The Grand Landesloge of Germany in Berlin, with 54 St. Andrew's and 177 St. John's Lodges, zi,oo5 Brethren, Dr. Eugen Miillendorff, Grand Master. 4. The Grand Lodge of Prussia in Berlin, io8 Lodges, 11,422 Brethren, Dr. Otto Zimmer, Grand Master. 5. The Grand Lodge Zur Eintracht in Darmstadt, io Lodges, 896 Brethren, Karl Kahlert, Grand Master. 6. Grand Lodge of Saxony in Dresden, 45 Lodges, 7,344 Brethren, Gotthold Anders, Grand Master. 7. Grand Mother‑Lodge of the Eclectic Union at Frankfort, 26 Lodges, 3,2oo Brethren, Ludwig Riess, Grand Master. 8. Grand Lodge of Hamburg, 54 Lodges, 5,ooo Brethren, Richard Brose, Grand Master. 9. Grand Lodge of German Brotherhood at Leipzig, io Lodges, 1,935 Brethren, Paul Mensdorf, Grand Master.


A further Grand Lodge‑the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany‑was founded at Hamburg, on July 27, 1930, by eight Lodges. This Grand Lodge was brought into being by the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. It claims to have been founded in accordance with the basic principles laid down by the Grand Lodge of England.


In 1932, the Hitler government suppressed all Masonic activity in Germany, and all Lodges and Grand Lodges either ceased to exist or else divested themselves of Masonic characteristics and activity.



CHAPTER IV FREEMASONRY IN AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY

[The leading authority on the history of the Craft in these countries is Dr. L. Lewis's Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Oesterreich, etc., Vienna, 1861, supplemented by references to Beigel's Verfassung der Provincial and Gr. Loge von Oesterreich, 1784, Vienna, 1877 ; the various articles in the Allge meine.r Handbuch ; but, particularly, the detailed articles in vols. iv to ix of the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, in " A Sketch of the Earlier History of Freemasonry in Austria and Hungary," by Ladislas de Malczovitch.] HE history of Freemasonry in Austria‑its traces in the Austrian Netherlands have already been referred to in connexion with Belgium‑may be said to commence with the initiation of the Duke of Lorraine.


Francis Stephen was born at Nancy, December 8, 1708 and succeeded his father, Leopold Joseph Charles, as Duke of Lorraine on March z7, I709‑ In 1731 a special Lodge was held at the Hague under Dr. J. T. Desaguliers, as Master; John Stanhope and John Holzendorff, as Wardens; the Earl of Chesterfield, with others, in order to initiate and pass the Duke, who was afterwards made a Master Mason in England in the same year. On that occasion the Grand Master of England, Lord Lovel, afterwards Earl of Leicester, summoned an Emergency Lodge to be held at Houghton Hall, Norfolk, the country seat of Robert Walpole, Earl of Oxford, where the Duke was raised to the Master's Degree, together with Thomas Pelham, Duke of Newcastle. From that time the Duke of Lorraine took a very keen interest in Masonic matters and was always mentioned with distinction in Grand and private Lodges, an official toast even being drunk in his honour in the Austrian Lodges. In the year following his initiation, 1732, a Lodge was founded in London bearing his name, but it was not, as has sometimes been claimed, established by him. In 173 S he renounced Lorraine by the Treaty of Vienna and, in 1736, he married Maria Theresa, daughter and heiress of Charles V of Austria and, on the death of Gaston de Medicis, in 1737, he succeeded to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, when he proclaimed himself the protector of the persecuted Freemasons, who had been arrested at the instigation of the Inquisition, which had been established in Tuscany as the outcome of the prohibition against Freemasonry issued by Gaston de Medicis shortly before his death. Francis would not permit the promulgation of Pope Clement's Bull of April z8, 1738, within the kingdom of Austria and he ordered that all Freemasons who had been arrested at the command of the Inquisition were to be set at liberty and their trials to be suspended.


Francis Stephen was the first prince of any European country to join the Masonic Order, but his example was quickly followed by a number of august 161 F.


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