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Giosuè Carducci

Source: Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giosu%C3%A8_Carducci

Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci; also Giosue Carducci in later years; 27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet, writer, literary critic and teacher. He was very influential and was regarded as the official national poet of modern Italy. In 1906 he became the first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces".

Biography

He was born in Valdicastello (part of Pietrasanta), a small town in the Province of Lucca in the northwest corner of the region of Tuscany. His father, a doctor, was an advocate of the unification of Italy and was involved with the Carbonari. Because of his politics, the family was forced to move several times during Carducci's childhood, eventually settling for a few years in Florence.

From the time he was in college, he was fascinated with the restrained style of Greek and Roman Antiquity, and his mature work reflects a restrained classical style, often using the classical meters of such Latin poets as Horace and Virgil. He translated Book 9 of Homer's Iliad into Italian.

He graduated in 1856 from the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and began teaching school. The following year, he published his first collection of poems, Rime. These were difficult years for Carducci: his father died, and his brother committed suicide.

In 1859, he married Elvira Menicucci, and they had four children. He briefly taught Greek at a high school in Pistoia, and then was appointed Italian professor at the university in Bologna. Here, one of his students was Giovanni Pascoli, who became a poet himself and later succeeded him at the university.

Carducci was a popular lecturer and a fierce critic of literature and society. He was an atheist, whose political views were vehemently hostile to Christianity generally and the Catholic Church in particular.

I know neither truth of God nor peace with the Vatican or any priests. They are the real and unaltering enemies of Italy.

he said in his later years.

This anti-clerical revolutionary vehemence is prominently showcased in one famous poem, the deliberately blasphemous and provocative "Inno a Satana" (or "Hymn to Satan".) The poem was composed in 1863 as a dinner party toast, published in 1865, then republished in 1869 by Bologna's radical newspaper, Il Popolo, as a provocation timed to coincide with the First Vatican Council, a time when revolutionary fervor directed against the papacy was running high as republicans pressed both politically and militarily for an end of the Vatican’s domination over the papal states.

In 1890 he met future writer and poet Annie Vivanti, with whom he started a love affair. Carlo Emilio Gadda reported that

Carducci used to travel with a suitcase in which he kept a huge pair of Annie Vivanti's panties... every once in a while, he opened the suitcase, took out the panties, sniffed them and got intoxicated from them.

In 2004, the uncensored letters between her and Carducci were published.

While "Inno a Satana" had quite a revolutionary impact, Carducci's finest poetry came in later years. His collections Rime Nuove (New Rhymes) and Odi Barbare (Barbarian Odes) contain his greatest works.

He was the first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1906. He was also elected a Senator of Italy.[14] In politics he remained a strong Liberal throughout his life, although he vacillated between a preference for republicanism and constitutional monarchy.[15] Although his reputation rests primarily on his poetry, he also produced a large body of prose works.[16] Indeed, his prose writings, including literary criticism, biographies, speeches and essays, fill some 20 volumes. Carducci was also an excellent translator and translated some of Goethe and Heine into Italian.

The Museum of the Risorgimento, Bologna is housed in the Casa Carducci, the house where he died at the age of 71, and contains an exhibits on the author.

Hymn to Satan - L'Inno a Satana (1863)

Italian original Version It: Giosuè Carducci

To you, creation’s
mighty principle,
matter and spirit
reason and sense
Whilst the wine
sparkles in cups
like the soul
in the eye
Whilst earth and
sun exchange
their smiles and
words of love
And shudders
from their secret embrace run down
from the mountains, and
the plain throbs with new life
To you my daring
verses are unleashed,
you I invoke, O Satan
monarch of the feast.
Put aside your sprinkler,
priest, and your litanies!
No, priest, Satan
does not retreat!
Behold! Rust
erodes the mystic
sword of Michael
and the faithful
Archangel, deplumed,
drops into the void.
The thunderbolt lies frozen
in Jove’s hand
Like pale meteors,
spent worlds,
the angels drop
from the firmament
In unsleeping
matter,
king of phenomena,
monarch of form,
Satan alone lives.
He holds sway in
the tremulous flash
of some dark eye,
Or the eye which languidly
turns and resists,
or which, bright and moist,
provokes, insists.
He shines in the bright
blood of grapes,
by which transient
joy persists,
Which restores fleeting
life, keeps
grief at bay,
and inspires us with love
You breathe, O Satan
in my verses,
when from my heart explodes
a challenge to the god
Of wicked pontiffs,
bloody kings;
and like lightning you
shock men’s minds.
Sculpture, painting
and poetry
first lived for you, Ahriman,
Adonis and Astarte,
When Venus
Anadyomene
blessed the
clear Ionian skies
For you the trees of
Lebannon shook,
resurrected lover
of the holy Cyprian:
For you wild dances were done
and choruses swelled
for you virgins offered
their spotless love,
Amongst the perfumed
palms of Idumea
where the Cyprian
seas foam.
To what avail did
the barbarous Christian
fury of agape,
in obscene ritual,
With holy torch
burn down your temples,
scattering their
Greek statuary?
You, a refugee,
the mindful people
welcomed into their homes
amongst their household gods
Thereafter filling the throbbing
female heart
with your fervor
as both god and lover
You inspired the witch,
pallid from endless enquiry,
to succor
suffering nature
You, to the intent gaze
of the alchemist,
and to the skeptical eye
of the sorcerer,
You revealed bright
new heavens
beyond the confines
of the drowsy cloister.
Fleeing from material
things, where you reside,
the dreary monk took refuge
in the Theban desert.
To you O soul
with your sprig severed,
Satan is benign:
he gives you your Heloise.
You mortify yourself to no purpose,
in your rough sackcloth:
Satan still murmurs to you
lines from Maro and Flaccus
Amidst the dirge
and wailing of the Psalms;
and he brings to your side
the divine shapes,
Roseate amidst that
horrid black crowd,
of Lycoris
and Glycera
But other shapes
from a more glorious age
fitfully fill
the sleepless cell.
Satan, from pages
in Livy, conjures fervent
tribunes, consuls,
restless throngs;
And he thrusts you,
O monk, with your memories
of Italy’s proud past
upon the Capitol.
And you whom the raging
pyre could not destroy,
voices of destiny,
Wycliffe and Huss,
You lift to the winds
your waning cry:
‘The new age is dawning,
the time has come’.
And already mitres
and crowns tremble:
from the cloister
rebellion rumbles
Preaching defiance
in the voice of the
cassocked Girolamo
Savonarola
As Martin Luther
threw off his monkish robes,
so throw off your shackles,
O mind of man,
And crowned with flame,
shoot lightning and thunder;
Matter, arise;
Satan has won.
Both beautiful and awful
a monster is unleashed
it scours the oceans
is scours the land
Glittering and belching smoke
like a volcano,
it conquers the hills
it devours the plains.
It flies over chasms,
then burrows
into unknown caverns
along deepest paths;
To re-emerge, unconquerable
from shore to shore
it bellows out
like a whirlwind,
Like a whirlwind
it spews its breath:
‘It is Satan, you peoples,
Great Satan passes by’.
He passes by, bringing blessing
from place to place,
upon his unstoppable
chariot of fire
Hail, O Satan
O rebellion,
O you avenging force
of human reason!
Let holy incense
and prayers rise to you!
You have utterly vanquished
the Jehova of the Priests.

Giosue Carducci

See also

  • Freimaurerische Dichtung Giosué Carducci, Literatur 1906 (wurde 1862 Mitglied der Loge „Galvani“, Mitbegründer der Loge „Felsinea“ in Bologna, später affiliiert in der Loge „Propaganda Massonica“ in Rom)
  • Rezension: Heinz Sichrovsky (Hg.) – Als ich König war und Maurer Natürlich werden mit Beiträgen etwa von Giosuè Carducci oder Kurt Tucholsky auch die Gefilde fortschrittlicher Politik gestreift. Immerhin wird von Ersterem das Wirken Luzifers als segensreich eingestuft.
  • It: Grande Oriente d'Italia
  • En: Masonic Noble Prize Winners Giosue Carducci (1835-1907): 1906 Nobel Prize for Literature. Brother Giosue was Initiated in Lodge Felsinia Bologna in 1862. He joined Propaganda Masonica Lodge Rome. There are at least four Giosue Carduccia Lodges named in his honour, Nos 103 and 853 Bologna, No 686 Florence and No 820 Follonica.


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